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What is the melting point of this substance?

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Just to review before we start…

What is the melting point of this substance?

50˚C

The boiling point?

100˚C

- for pure substance in single phase - can calculate how much E needed using:
Q = mCT

- Q = energy in Joules
- m = mass in grams
- C = specific heat capacity
- T = change in temperature = Tf - Ti

- on other hand, when something cools down, energy is released!

Temperature

Time

Q = mCliquidT

Q = mCgasT

Q = mCsolidT

IV

I

II

III

V

- C = specific heat capacity
(amount heat required to raise temp of 1g of pure substance by 1C)

- C is a physical constant
- unique for every pure substance
- CAN YOU FIND THE SPECIFIC HEAT OF WATER ON YOUR REFERENCE TABLE?

Temperature

Time

Why can’t I use Q = mCT for II and IV??

IV

I

II

III

V

Because T = 0, temp isn’t changing!!!!

So, how do we calculate the amount of energy required during a phase change?

- HF = Heat of Fusion (Q = mHF)
- HV = Heat of Vaporization (Q=mHV)
- We use one of these two constants instead of specific heat and delta T
- Q = mCT

is amount energy required to change 1 gram

of pure substance from solid to liquid at its MP (meaning you aren’t changing the temperature)

Is a physical constant

Check out Reference Table B, what is the heat of fusion for water?

The Equation Q = mHf

Heat absorbed =

mass of substance x heat of fusion of substance

Q = mHf = (10 g)(334 J/g) = 3340 J

Where does this energy go?

Particles must overcome forces of attraction to move farther apart during phase change (s → l)

is the amount energy required to convert 1 gram

of pure substance from liquid to gas at its BP (meaning you aren’t changing the temperature)

Is a physical constant

Check out Reference Table B, what is the heat of vaporization for water?

The Equation Q = mHv

Q = mHv

Q = (10 g)(2260 J/g) = 22600 J

It takes a lot more energy to go from liquid to gas than from solid to liquid. Why?

H2O changing from liquid to gas requires 22,600J/g

H2O changing from solid to liquid requires 3,340J/g

* greater energy required to change from liquid to gas because particles are spreading farther apart!

Temperature

Time

Q = mCsolidT

Q = mCLIQUIDT

Q = mCgasT

Q = mHV

Q = mHF

IV

I

II

III

V

Heating curve of H2O

1. Q = mCT

2. Q = mHf

3. Q = mHv

figure out which to use

depends on section of heating curve

look for hints in word problem

Temperature changed

T ↑

T ↓

Initial temperature

Start temperature

Final temperature

Ending temperature

From __ ˚C to __ ˚C

Water

Ice

Freezing

Melting

Occurs at 0C (for H2O)

At constant temperature

Steam

Boiling

Condensation

Occurs at 100C (for H2O)

At constant temperature

heating rate = 150 J/min

If the substance takes 4 minutes to melt, how much heat energy was used to melt it?

150J/min x 4min = 600J