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Warm Up 10/29. What is the difference between a mixture and a compound?. Lesson : Intro to Chemical Bonding. Chemical Bond – an attractive force between atoms that is strong enough to enable the group to act as a unit. What makes atoms bond? Why do they “want” to bond?. Dating Game.

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Warm Up 10/29

What is the difference between a mixture and a compound?


Lesson: Intro to Chemical Bonding


Chemical Bond – an attractive force between atoms that is strong enough to enable the group to act as a unit.



Dating Game

What do you look for in a soul mate?



Sodium by fulfilling the Octet Rule.

Chlorine


  • Octet rule by fulfilling the Octet Rule. – atoms tend to react and bond so that they have an outer energy level filled with electrons.

  • They can do this by gaining or losing electrons.

  • Most atoms will have 8 valence electrons after they bond.

  • Some will have 2 valence electrons, like hydrogen, helium, lithium, berrylium and boron.


Oxygen shares an electron pair with two hydrogen atoms, so that all of them fulfill the octet rule.


Warm Up 10/30 that all of them fulfill the octet rule.

What electric charge does an atom have if it gains an electron?

What if it loses an electron?


Lesson that all of them fulfill the octet rule.: Ionic Bonding

Sodium chloride


Ionic Bond that all of them fulfill the octet rule. – electrons are transfered, then the ions attract each other.

General Rules:

1) 1 Metal + 1 Non-metal

2) Elements on left lose electrons (+), elements on right gain electrons (-).



Magnesium Oxide: fulfill the octet rule.

Magnesium

Oxygen

-2

+2


. fulfill the octet rule.

.

-1

+ 2

-1


Practice – Left side! fulfill the octet rule.

  • Directions: Write the formula units for the following ionic compounds:

  • Sodium & oxygen

  • Barium & fluorine

  • Rubidium & iodine

  • Calcium & sulfate (poly)

  • Potassium & sulfite (poly)

  • Aluminum & oxygen


Polyatomic Ions fulfill the octet rule.

  • Ions made of more than one atom (molecules that are ions)

  • All are anions, except ammonium

  • Have special names

  • Sulfate

  • Hydroxide

  • Phosphate


Warm Up 10/31 fulfill the octet rule.

Give an example of a homogeneous mixture and a heterogeneous mixture.


Warm Up 11/1 fulfill the octet rule.

If you had two liquids that formed a homogeneous mixture, what method could you use to separate them?


Lesson fulfill the octet rule.: Naming Ionic Compounds


  • How to Name fulfill the octet rule.:

  • 1. Cation’s name remains unchanged

  • Change the end of the anion’s name to “ide”

  • (polyatomic ion names stay the same)

  • NaCl =

  • K O =

  • Al (CO ) =

Sodium chloride

Potassium oxide

2

Aluminum carbonate

2

3

3


Problem fulfill the octet rule.: Some elements have more than one form of cation!

Examples:

Fe and Fe

We call them Iron (II) and Iron (III)

Cu and Cu

Call them Copper (I) and Copper (II)

2+

3+

+

2+


+2

+3

+2

+3

+2

+3

+

+2

+

+3

+2

+4

+2

+4


Use Reverse Swap & Drop! fulfill the octet rule.

CuCl =

Is it Copper (I) or Copper (II)?

Fe O =

Is it Iron (II) or Iron (III)?

2

2

3



Practice: Left Side! work?

Directions: Write the names of the following ionic compounds.

  • MgO

  • KBr

  • Na O

  • FeCl

  • CuBr

2

3

2


Warm Up 11/12 work?

What is the difference between an ionic compound like salt (NaCl) and a water molecule (H 0)?

2



Old Ideas work?

Compound = 2 atoms that are chemically bonded together.

Noble gases don’t chemically react. Why? They have 8 valence electrons.


New Ideas work?

Atoms want 8 valence electrons. That means they will have a full outer energy level.

Octet rule – atoms react and bond so that they have an outer energy level filled with 8 electrons.

(Some atoms only need 2)


Bonding work?

  • Covalent

  • Electrons shared

  • 2 nonmetals

  • Ionic

  • Electrons transferred

  • 1 metal + 1 nonmetal



2 Chlorine Atoms attracted to the shared electron.


Chlorine Molecule attracted to the shared electron.

1 Shared pair of Electrons


Methane attracted to the shared electron.


Naming Covalent Compounds attracted to the shared electron.

  • Rules:

  • Name of the first element remains the same (might need a prefix)

  • Name of the second element ends in “ide” (might need a prefix)

Example: S C

3


Prefixes attracted to the shared electron.


Practice Naming attracted to the shared electron.

= Phosphorus trichloride

  • PCl

  • CO

  • N O

  • S N

3

= Carbon dioxide

2

= Dinitrogen monoxide

2

= Tetrasulfur pentanitride

4

5


Practice Writing Formulas attracted to the shared electron.

  • Selenium hexafluoride

  • Xenon tetrafluoride

  • Dichlorine heptoxide

  • Arsenic trifluoride

  • = SeF

6

  • = XeF

4

  • = Cl O

2

7

  • = AsF

3


Left Side Practice attracted to the shared electron.

Write the Names:

1) Br O

2) S N

3) SCl

4) Se F

Write the Formulas:

5) Chlorine dioxide

6) Selenium tetrafluoride

7) Dinitrogen trioxide

8) Tetraphosphorus pentasulfide

2

4

5

4

2

3


Warm Up 11/13 attracted to the shared electron.

What is the electron configuration of sulfur?


Warm Up 12/9 attracted to the shared electron.

Draw the lewis dot structure for NF

3


. attracted to the shared electron.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Trigonal Pyramidal

.

.

.

.

.

F

N

F

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

F


Ionic attracted to the shared electron.

Covalent

  • 1 Metal + 1 Nonmetal

  • Electrons transferred (stolen)

  • Swap & Drop

  • 2 Nonmetals

  • Electrons shared

  • Prefixes

Metallic


  • Ionic Characteristics attracted to the shared electron.

  • Forms crystal structures

  • High melting and boiling points

  • Conducts electricity when melted

  • Can dissolve in water

CaF

2


Natural NaCl attracted to the shared electron.


  • Covalent Characteristics attracted to the shared electron.

  • Gases, liquids or solids (molecules)

  • Low melting and boiling points

  • Poor conductors of electricity

  • Usually not soluble in water


Metallic Bonding attracted to the shared electron.

The valence electrons of metals move about freely, forming a “sea” of electrons.


Characteristics of Metals attracted to the shared electron.

  • Conductive of electricity and heat

  • 2. Ductile

  • 3. Malleable

  • 4. Luster


3 attracted to the shared electron.

4

2


3

4

2

6


  • Write the names of the ionic compounds: attracted to the shared electron.

  • MgBr

  • FeN

  • Write the formulas of the ionic compunds:

  • Aluminum oxide

  • Copper (II) fluoride

  • Polyatomic Ions

  • Write the name of K PO

  • Write the formula of lithium sulfite

2

3

4


  • Metals with Double attracted to the shared electron.Cations:

  • Ti Ti

  • Cr Cr

  • Fe Fe

  • Cu Cu

  • Au Au

  • SnSn

  • PbPb

+2

+3

+2

+3

+2

+3

+

+2

+3

+

+2

+4

+2

+4


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