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Warm Up 10/29. What is the difference between a mixture and a compound?. Lesson : Intro to Chemical Bonding. Chemical Bond – an attractive force between atoms that is strong enough to enable the group to act as a unit. What makes atoms bond? Why do they “want” to bond?. Dating Game.

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slide1

Warm Up 10/29

What is the difference between a mixture and a compound?

slide3

Chemical Bond – an attractive force between atoms that is strong enough to enable the group to act as a unit.

slide5

Dating Game

What do you look for in a soul mate?

slide7

Sodium

Chlorine

slide8

Octet rule – atoms tend to react and bond so that they have an outer energy level filled with electrons.

  • They can do this by gaining or losing electrons.
  • Most atoms will have 8 valence electrons after they bond.
  • Some will have 2 valence electrons, like hydrogen, helium, lithium, berrylium and boron.
slide9

Oxygen shares an electron pair with two hydrogen atoms, so that all of them fulfill the octet rule.

slide10

Warm Up 10/30

What electric charge does an atom have if it gains an electron?

What if it loses an electron?

slide11

Lesson: Ionic Bonding

Sodium chloride

slide12

Ionic Bond – electrons are transfered, then the ions attract each other.

General Rules:

1) 1 Metal + 1 Non-metal

2) Elements on left lose electrons (+), elements on right gain electrons (-).

slide14

Magnesium Oxide:

Magnesium

Oxygen

-2

+2

slide15

.

.

-1

+ 2

-1

slide16

Practice – Left side!

  • Directions: Write the formula units for the following ionic compounds:
  • Sodium & oxygen
  • Barium & fluorine
  • Rubidium & iodine
  • Calcium & sulfate (poly)
  • Potassium & sulfite (poly)
  • Aluminum & oxygen
slide18

Polyatomic Ions

  • Ions made of more than one atom (molecules that are ions)
  • All are anions, except ammonium
  • Have special names
  • Sulfate
  • Hydroxide
  • Phosphate
slide19

Warm Up 10/31

Give an example of a homogeneous mixture and a heterogeneous mixture.

slide20

Warm Up 11/1

If you had two liquids that formed a homogeneous mixture, what method could you use to separate them?

slide22

How to Name:

  • 1. Cation’s name remains unchanged
  • Change the end of the anion’s name to “ide”
  • (polyatomic ion names stay the same)
  • NaCl =
  • K O =
  • Al (CO ) =

Sodium chloride

Potassium oxide

2

Aluminum carbonate

2

3

3

slide23

Problem: Some elements have more than one form of cation!

Examples:

Fe and Fe

We call them Iron (II) and Iron (III)

Cu and Cu

Call them Copper (I) and Copper (II)

2+

3+

+

2+

slide24

Metals with Double Cations:

  • Ti Ti
  • Cr Cr
  • Fe Fe
  • Cu Cu
  • Au Au
  • SnSn
  • PbPb

+2

+3

+2

+3

+2

+3

+

+2

+

+3

+2

+4

+2

+4

slide25

Use Reverse Swap & Drop!

CuCl =

Is it Copper (I) or Copper (II)?

Fe O =

Is it Iron (II) or Iron (III)?

2

2

3

slide27

Practice: Left Side!

Directions: Write the names of the following ionic compounds.

  • MgO
  • KBr
  • Na O
  • FeCl
  • CuBr

2

3

2

slide28

Warm Up 11/12

What is the difference between an ionic compound like salt (NaCl) and a water molecule (H 0)?

2

slide30

Old Ideas

Compound = 2 atoms that are chemically bonded together.

Noble gases don’t chemically react. Why? They have 8 valence electrons.

slide31

New Ideas

Atoms want 8 valence electrons. That means they will have a full outer energy level.

Octet rule – atoms react and bond so that they have an outer energy level filled with 8 electrons.

(Some atoms only need 2)

slide32

Bonding

  • Covalent
  • Electrons shared
  • 2 nonmetals
  • Ionic
  • Electrons transferred
  • 1 metal + 1 nonmetal
slide35

Chlorine Molecule

1 Shared pair of Electrons

slide37

Naming Covalent Compounds

  • Rules:
  • Name of the first element remains the same (might need a prefix)
  • Name of the second element ends in “ide” (might need a prefix)

Example: S C

3

slide39

Practice Naming

= Phosphorus trichloride

  • PCl
  • CO
  • N O
  • S N

3

= Carbon dioxide

2

= Dinitrogen monoxide

2

= Tetrasulfur pentanitride

4

5

slide40

Practice Writing Formulas

  • Selenium hexafluoride
  • Xenon tetrafluoride
  • Dichlorine heptoxide
  • Arsenic trifluoride
  • = SeF

6

  • = XeF

4

  • = Cl O

2

7

  • = AsF

3

slide41

Left Side Practice

Write the Names:

1) Br O

2) S N

3) SCl

4) Se F

Write the Formulas:

5) Chlorine dioxide

6) Selenium tetrafluoride

7) Dinitrogen trioxide

8) Tetraphosphorus pentasulfide

2

4

5

4

2

3

slide42

Warm Up 11/13

What is the electron configuration of sulfur?

slide43

Warm Up 12/9

Draw the lewis dot structure for NF

3

slide44

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Trigonal Pyramidal

.

.

.

.

.

F

N

F

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

F

slide45

Ionic

Covalent

  • 1 Metal + 1 Nonmetal
  • Electrons transferred (stolen)
  • Swap & Drop
  • 2 Nonmetals
  • Electrons shared
  • Prefixes

Metallic

slide46

Ionic Characteristics

  • Forms crystal structures
  • High melting and boiling points
  • Conducts electricity when melted
  • Can dissolve in water

CaF

2

slide49

Covalent Characteristics

  • Gases, liquids or solids (molecules)
  • Low melting and boiling points
  • Poor conductors of electricity
  • Usually not soluble in water
slide50

Metallic Bonding

The valence electrons of metals move about freely, forming a “sea” of electrons.

slide51

Characteristics of Metals

  • Conductive of electricity and heat
  • 2. Ductile
  • 3. Malleable
  • 4. Luster
slide52

3

4

2

slide53

Write the names of the covalent compounds:

  • P S
  • Br O
  • Write the formulas of the covalent compounds:
  • 3. Carbon heptachloride
  • 4. Trinitrogenpentasulfide

3

4

2

6

slide54

Write the names of the ionic compounds:

  • MgBr
  • FeN
  • Write the formulas of the ionic compunds:
  • Aluminum oxide
  • Copper (II) fluoride
  • Polyatomic Ions
  • Write the name of K PO
  • Write the formula of lithium sulfite

2

3

4

slide55

Metals with Double Cations:

  • Ti Ti
  • Cr Cr
  • Fe Fe
  • Cu Cu
  • Au Au
  • SnSn
  • PbPb

+2

+3

+2

+3

+2

+3

+

+2

+3

+

+2

+4

+2

+4

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