LOCAL GOVERNMENT  NJC JOB EVALUATION SCHEME

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The Context. Single Status Agreement 19972002 national local government strikeLocal Government Pay Commission 20032004 NJC pay settlement. Local Government NJC Job Evaluation Scheme. Designed to cover all local government jobs up to chief officer level (but excluding teachers)Developed specific

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LOCAL GOVERNMENT NJC JOB EVALUATION SCHEME

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1. LOCAL GOVERNMENT NJC JOB EVALUATION SCHEME This UNISON presentation explains the local government NJC job evaluation scheme and the reasons why your council should use it in your single status pay and grading review. The presentation does not address the merits of competitor schemes. That is for you to judge. However, our opinion is that none yet match up to the principles of the NJC Job Evaluation Scheme.This UNISON presentation explains the local government NJC job evaluation scheme and the reasons why your council should use it in your single status pay and grading review. The presentation does not address the merits of competitor schemes. That is for you to judge. However, our opinion is that none yet match up to the principles of the NJC Job Evaluation Scheme.

2. The Context Single Status Agreement 1997 2002 national local government strike Local Government Pay Commission 2003 2004 NJC pay settlement The context In 1997 the Single Status Agreement promised to remove the gender inequalities in local government pay structures by committing councils to carry out pay and grading reviews. In 2002, few councils had reviewed their structures and these inequalities remained – a factor leading to the first national local government strike in13 years. An independent Local Government Pay Commission set up after the dispute underlined the issues to be addressed: A serious gender pay gap still exists in local government Equality in local government is a necessity not an option The principles of single status are good The NJC job evaluation scheme should be used for local government single status grading reviews The employers and unions accepted the Commission’s findings and the Commission’s report shaped the 2004 NJC pay settlement. The 2004 implementation agreement requires councils to complete single status pay and grading reviews by April 2007. Outstanding issues as of April 2006 are to be resolved by assisted bargaining arrangements. Doing nothing is not an option. The context In 1997 the Single Status Agreement promised to remove the gender inequalities in local government pay structures by committing councils to carry out pay and grading reviews. In 2002, few councils had reviewed their structures and these inequalities remained – a factor leading to the first national local government strike in13 years. An independent Local Government Pay Commission set up after the dispute underlined the issues to be addressed: A serious gender pay gap still exists in local government Equality in local government is a necessity not an option The principles of single status are good The NJC job evaluation scheme should be used for local government single status grading reviews The employers and unions accepted the Commission’s findings and the Commission’s report shaped the 2004 NJC pay settlement. The 2004 implementation agreement requires councils to complete single status pay and grading reviews by April 2007. Outstanding issues as of April 2006 are to be resolved by assisted bargaining arrangements. Doing nothing is not an option.

3. Local Government NJC Job Evaluation Scheme To achieve single status, all jobs within the scope of the NJC agreement have to be graded on a common basis in accordance with equal pay legislation. This can be done by a job evaluation scheme which incorporates the principles of equal pay for work of equal value. Great care is needed in the selection of a job evaluation scheme especially where a wide range of different groups are to be covered in a single exercise. In order to fulfil the legal requirements of the Equal Pay Act, a job evaluation scheme should be appropriate to all the groups to be evaluated and especially to predominantly female job groups. During the negotiations leading to the Single Status Agreement 1997, it was agreed early on by the national employers and the unions that no existing job evaluation scheme was appropriate. Most existing schemes had been designed to cover primarily manual workers or for managers/APT&C staff, but not for both groups together. None covered the range of and diversity of manual and non manual jobs in a fair and non biased way which would comply with equal pay law. The NJC JES was therefore specifically designed to support local employers and union representatives in implementing single status grading reviews. It was designed by a joint technical working group with representatives from the employers and the unions along with expert advisers on equal pay/job evaluation. As mentioned, in 2003 an independent Local Government Pay Commission reviewed implementation of single status in local government and recommended use of the NJC job evaluation scheme. It said any alternative Job Evaluation scheme proposed had to be justified by an employer as meeting the principles of the NJC scheme. Local Government NJC Job Evaluation Scheme To achieve single status, all jobs within the scope of the NJC agreement have to be graded on a common basis in accordance with equal pay legislation. This can be done by a job evaluation scheme which incorporates the principles of equal pay for work of equal value. Great care is needed in the selection of a job evaluation scheme especially where a wide range of different groups are to be covered in a single exercise. In order to fulfil the legal requirements of the Equal Pay Act, a job evaluation scheme should be appropriate to all the groups to be evaluated and especially to predominantly female job groups. During the negotiations leading to the Single Status Agreement 1997, it was agreed early on by the national employers and the unions that no existing job evaluation scheme was appropriate. Most existing schemes had been designed to cover primarily manual workers or for managers/APT&C staff, but not for both groups together. None covered the range of and diversity of manual and non manual jobs in a fair and non biased way which would comply with equal pay law. The NJC JES was therefore specifically designed to support local employers and union representatives in implementing single status grading reviews. It was designed by a joint technical working group with representatives from the employers and the unions along with expert advisers on equal pay/job evaluation. As mentioned, in 2003 an independent Local Government Pay Commission reviewed implementation of single status in local government and recommended use of the NJC job evaluation scheme. It said any alternative Job Evaluation scheme proposed had to be justified by an employer as meeting the principles of the NJC scheme.

4. Local Government NJC Job Evaluation Scheme – principles The NJC Job Evaluation Scheme is based on the following principles: Single Status – the NJC scheme is designed to be suitable for and to measure fairly all jobs in the NJC remit. It covers all jobs within the scope of the Green Book including jobs above the maximum of the spine up to but excluding those covered by the JNC for Chief Officers (because Chief Officers have their own bargaining group and a separate job evaluation scheme.) The only group not included is teachers. Other schemes operating in the LG field are amended schemes and have not been specifically designed for a single status context. Equality – the NJC scheme is designed to be free of gender bias and discrimination on the grounds of race, sexuality, religious belief, age and disability. Because it is designed for local government jobs in the context of single status the scheme conforms with the requirements of equal pay law i.e. it deals with all 3 types of Equal Pay Act claims that can be taken (“Like Work”, “Work rated as equivalent” and “work of equal value.”) Both the EOC and the CRE welcomed the scheme. Jointness – the scheme is underpinned by a strong commitment to employers and unions working together in a genuinely equal partnership. The system was designed by a joint Technical Working Group and is intended to be operated by employers and unions locally on a fully joint basis. Openness – as an issue of principle but also to comply with equal pay requirements for ‘transparency’ all details of the scheme are published and readily available to local government employees. In contrast, usually management schemes do not disclose information such as weightings and the full evaluation scores to individual employees. The next slides look at how the NJC scheme operates and how these principles are embedded in the scheme: Local Government NJC Job Evaluation Scheme – principles The NJC Job Evaluation Scheme is based on the following principles: Single Status – the NJC scheme is designed to be suitable for and to measure fairly all jobs in the NJC remit. It covers all jobs within the scope of the Green Book including jobs above the maximum of the spine up to but excluding those covered by the JNC for Chief Officers (because Chief Officers have their own bargaining group and a separate job evaluation scheme.) The only group not included is teachers. Other schemes operating in the LG field are amended schemes and have not been specifically designed for a single status context. Equality – the NJC scheme is designed to be free of gender bias and discrimination on the grounds of race, sexuality, religious belief, age and disability. Because it is designed for local government jobs in the context of single status the scheme conforms with the requirements of equal pay law i.e. it deals with all 3 types of Equal Pay Act claims that can be taken (“Like Work”, “Work rated as equivalent” and “work of equal value.”) Both the EOC and the CRE welcomed the scheme. Jointness – the scheme is underpinned by a strong commitment to employers and unions working together in a genuinely equal partnership. The system was designed by a joint Technical Working Group and is intended to be operated by employers and unions locally on a fully joint basis. Openness – as an issue of principle but also to comply with equal pay requirements for ‘transparency’ all details of the scheme are published and readily available to local government employees. In contrast, usually management schemes do not disclose information such as weightings and the full evaluation scores to individual employees. The next slides look at how the NJC scheme operates and how these principles are embedded in the scheme:

5. NJC JES – factors The factors of a job evaluation system measure the demands of a job. Questions to ask when assessing a job evaluation scheme include are the factors suitable for all jobs to be covered? Do they cover all significant job features? We think the NJC scheme does. The NJC JES has 13 factors – which is relatively large for a job evaluation system – each measuring a discrete job demand. Most of the factors are commonly found in other JE schemes, for example, Knowledge, Initiative and Independence, Responsibility for Supervision of other Employees, Responsibility for Financial Resources. However the NJC factor plan is influenced by equality considerations in a number of ways: Skills Factors Skills (mental, interpersonal, physical) are each measured under separate factor headings, to avoid these being regarded as subordinate if measured as part of a knowledge and skills factor Interpersonal and communications skills in particular are seen as a significant job feature and defined to include caring skills. Initiative & Independence There has been criticism of decision making factors for measuring managerial decision making at the expense of people related decision making. To avoid this, the NJC scheme measures scope for taking decisions under the initiative and independence factor and the nature of the decision under the relevant responsibility factor. NJC JES – factors The factors of a job evaluation system measure the demands of a job. Questions to ask when assessing a job evaluation scheme include are the factors suitable for all jobs to be covered? Do they cover all significant job features? We think the NJC scheme does. The NJC JES has 13 factors – which is relatively large for a job evaluation system – each measuring a discrete job demand. Most of the factors are commonly found in other JE schemes, for example, Knowledge, Initiative and Independence, Responsibility for Supervision of other Employees, Responsibility for Financial Resources. However the NJC factor plan is influenced by equality considerations in a number of ways: Skills Factors Skills (mental, interpersonal, physical) are each measured under separate factor headings, to avoid these being regarded as subordinate if measured as part of a knowledge and skills factor Interpersonal and communications skills in particular are seen as a significant job feature and defined to include caring skills. Initiative & Independence There has been criticism of decision making factors for measuring managerial decision making at the expense of people related decision making. To avoid this, the NJC scheme measures scope for taking decisions under the initiative and independence factor and the nature of the decision under the relevant responsibility factor.

6. Responsibility Factors Responsibilities are also measured under a number of separate factor headings to avoid one form of responsibility being regarded as more important than others Responsibility for people is identified as a separate factor to reflect responsibilities for local authority clients and members of the public. In general terms, other job evaluation schemes do not interpret ‘responsibility for people’ factors in this way. They often define it as responsibility in the more traditional line manager/supervisory sense. Responsibility Factors Responsibilities are also measured under a number of separate factor headings to avoid one form of responsibility being regarded as more important than others Responsibility for people is identified as a separate factor to reflect responsibilities for local authority clients and members of the public. In general terms, other job evaluation schemes do not interpret ‘responsibility for people’ factors in this way. They often define it as responsibility in the more traditional line manager/supervisory sense.

7. Effort factors In addition to the more conventional physical demands and mental demands factors, emotional demands was introduced as an effort factor, to measure demands arising from the behaviour and circumstances of individuals coming into contact with jobholders To summarise The inclusion of factors such as interpersonal skills, physical skills, emotional demand and responsibility for people ensure features of local government jobs which might have been undervalued in the past are fairly measured in the NJC scheme. The NJC JES is unique in specifically measuring physical skills and emotional demand. Both of these factors are especially relevant to the local government workforce, particularly in councils providing the full range of services. Effort factors In addition to the more conventional physical demands and mental demands factors, emotional demands was introduced as an effort factor, to measure demands arising from the behaviour and circumstances of individuals coming into contact with jobholders To summarise The inclusion of factors such as interpersonal skills, physical skills, emotional demand and responsibility for people ensure features of local government jobs which might have been undervalued in the past are fairly measured in the NJC scheme. The NJC JES is unique in specifically measuring physical skills and emotional demand. Both of these factors are especially relevant to the local government workforce, particularly in councils providing the full range of services.

8. Scoring of factor levels In a job evaluation scheme, each factor has different levels to measure the demands of a job, called the scoring system. When assessing a job evaluation scheme, attention should be paid as to whether the scheme’s factor levels represent genuine steps in demand amongst all the jobs to be covered. The NJC scheme has demand levels of between 5 and 8 levels according to the factor - as can be seen in this slide. The factor levels are designed to represent equal steps in demand and each factor has clear, specific guidance about what tasks/functions would place the job in each level. The factor levels were developed without reference to dominant gender of jobholders, but attempted to ensure the demands of women’s jobs were as fairly measured as those of men’s jobs. Scoring of factor levels In a job evaluation scheme, each factor has different levels to measure the demands of a job, called the scoring system. When assessing a job evaluation scheme, attention should be paid as to whether the scheme’s factor levels represent genuine steps in demand amongst all the jobs to be covered. The NJC scheme has demand levels of between 5 and 8 levels according to the factor - as can be seen in this slide. The factor levels are designed to represent equal steps in demand and each factor has clear, specific guidance about what tasks/functions would place the job in each level. The factor levels were developed without reference to dominant gender of jobholders, but attempted to ensure the demands of women’s jobs were as fairly measured as those of men’s jobs.

9. Weighting The weighting in a job evaluation scheme measures the importance of each factor as a percentage of the total possible points score. The questions to ask when assessing the weighting principles in a job evaluation scheme are does the extra weighting of certain factors match the values of the council? Do the most heavily weighted factors reflect the most important issues for the council? In the NJC scheme, as in many other job evaluation schemes, knowledge & skills and responsibility factors are agreed to be of greater importance than effort and working conditions. Knowledge is agreed to be the most important factor. To ensure that every factor could impact on outcomes, the minimum weighting of factors was put at 5% of total points. Weighting The weighting in a job evaluation scheme measures the importance of each factor as a percentage of the total possible points score. The questions to ask when assessing the weighting principles in a job evaluation scheme are does the extra weighting of certain factors match the values of the council? Do the most heavily weighted factors reflect the most important issues for the council? In the NJC scheme, as in many other job evaluation schemes, knowledge & skills and responsibility factors are agreed to be of greater importance than effort and working conditions. Knowledge is agreed to be the most important factor. To ensure that every factor could impact on outcomes, the minimum weighting of factors was put at 5% of total points.

10. Practical Aspects (optional slide depending on audience’s knowledge) The next two slides concern the JE process. With any job evaluation scheme, you will need: A Steering Committee - to decide on the scheme, establish terms of reference and organise the exercise and training for job evaluators and steering group An Evaluation Committee - to evaluate jobs against the scheme’s factors and factor levels Job Analysts - to assist job holders and line managers to prepare job descriptions or complete and verify job description questionnaires to agreed format Benchmark Jobs - a sample of jobs against which to test the scheme and the proposed implementation procedures Job Descriptions - a crucial tool for any JE Exercise. Poor job descriptions inevitably lead to poor outcomes Computerised JE – the scheme remains the same the differences are: information is in tick box job analysis questionnaire form the job information is input directly into the computer system, which produces the weighted points score for each job - no evaluation committee is needed Practical Aspects (optional slide depending on audience’s knowledge) The next two slides concern the JE process. With any job evaluation scheme, you will need: A Steering Committee - to decide on the scheme, establish terms of reference and organise the exercise and training for job evaluators and steering group An Evaluation Committee - to evaluate jobs against the scheme’s factors and factor levels Job Analysts - to assist job holders and line managers to prepare job descriptions or complete and verify job description questionnaires to agreed format Benchmark Jobs - a sample of jobs against which to test the scheme and the proposed implementation procedures Job Descriptions - a crucial tool for any JE Exercise. Poor job descriptions inevitably lead to poor outcomes Computerised JE – the scheme remains the same the differences are: information is in tick box job analysis questionnaire form the job information is input directly into the computer system, which produces the weighted points score for each job - no evaluation committee is needed

11. Comments on the NJC Scheme The NJC Green Book Part 4 guidance and users’ manual set out how to implement the scheme. The NJC scheme is built on joint union/employer involvement in selecting benchmark samples, evaluating jobs and hearing appeals. This is not normally the case with management schemes, where joint work and processes tend to be more limited. A standard job description questionnaire is used to collect factual information from the job holder so that the information base for each evaluation is clear. The NJC JDQ is a joint document and is signed off by manager after discussion. The use of a JDQ is strongly recommended by the NJC as being the mechanism most likely to achieve high quality, consistent job information across all jobs. It is not based on management information about job content and provides no opportunity for the inclusion of value judgements. Rather evaluations use information gathered in a consistent and standardised way from the job holder – as recommended by the EOC.The NJC scheme is the only scheme in the local government field to specify a JDQ must be used. In other main schemes its use is optional and it is often not used in practice. Evaluations take place either : - On paper (sometimes called the manual version) with a panel - On computer (using Gauge software) with the panel having an overview Comments on the NJC Scheme The NJC Green Book Part 4 guidance and users’ manual set out how to implement the scheme. The NJC scheme is built on joint union/employer involvement in selecting benchmark samples, evaluating jobs and hearing appeals. This is not normally the case with management schemes, where joint work and processes tend to be more limited. A standard job description questionnaire is used to collect factual information from the job holder so that the information base for each evaluation is clear. The NJC JDQ is a joint document and is signed off by manager after discussion. The use of a JDQ is strongly recommended by the NJC as being the mechanism most likely to achieve high quality, consistent job information across all jobs. It is not based on management information about job content and provides no opportunity for the inclusion of value judgements. Rather evaluations use information gathered in a consistent and standardised way from the job holder – as recommended by the EOC.The NJC scheme is the only scheme in the local government field to specify a JDQ must be used. In other main schemes its use is optional and it is often not used in practice. Evaluations take place either : - On paper (sometimes called the manual version) with a panel - On computer (using Gauge software) with the panel having an overview

12. Comments on Gauge Pilat (UK) Ltd computerised the NJC scheme on behalf of the NJC using their Gauge software. The computerised approach still requires a joint exercise at local level and the initial undertaking of benchmarking to establish and verify local conventions. Gauge puts together the JDQs and analyses them. Other steps have to be followed through as with the paper exercise. The process is set out on this slide. Advantages of computerised JE – it will save time and money at the stage of putting together JDQs & analysing them. Therefore it is cheaper in terms of resources because less time needed for panels & it is quicker. Every job is treated consistently and it avoids danger of human error, if the correct information is inputted into the system. It lessens the number of appeals. On the other hand - some people will feel more comfortable with a paper exercise and there is no room for taking account of personal knowledge of panellists. It can lull panellists into false sense of security and they still have to be rigorous in their overview of the process. The Gauge software costs between £6,000 - £13,000 depending on the licence required and is available from manufacturers PILAT. There are additional supporting maintenance and training costs. Comments on Gauge Pilat (UK) Ltd computerised the NJC scheme on behalf of the NJC using their Gauge software. The computerised approach still requires a joint exercise at local level and the initial undertaking of benchmarking to establish and verify local conventions. Gauge puts together the JDQs and analyses them. Other steps have to be followed through as with the paper exercise. The process is set out on this slide. Advantages of computerised JE – it will save time and money at the stage of putting together JDQs & analysing them. Therefore it is cheaper in terms of resources because less time needed for panels & it is quicker. Every job is treated consistently and it avoids danger of human error, if the correct information is inputted into the system. It lessens the number of appeals. On the other hand - some people will feel more comfortable with a paper exercise and there is no room for taking account of personal knowledge of panellists. It can lull panellists into false sense of security and they still have to be rigorous in their overview of the process. The Gauge software costs between £6,000 - £13,000 depending on the licence required and is available from manufacturers PILAT. There are additional supporting maintenance and training costs.

13. Is the NJC JE Scheme time consuming, given it is jointly operated? A local government single status pay and grading review is a complex process. It means reviewing the gradings of a large range of jobs currently graded in totally different ways and achieving new common grading/pay structures. which conform to the law on equal pay and are fair and bias free. Evaluating all jobs, irrespective of the JE Scheme used, will take time and effort, especially in the larger authorities. The Technical Working Group has indicated there is no particular evidence the NJC scheme is more time consuming compared to any other job evaluation scheme implemented with equal rigour. Fast track methods can be more risky because they may oversimplify the process of reviewing grades leading to unfairness and possible discrimination. In turn this is likely to lead to many individual appeals and lengthy and costly challenges to grading/pay structures as they affect particular occupational groups. The alternative costs to the employer deciding to use an alternative scheme to the NJC that does not meet its principles and equal pay claims are taken in consequence may be significantly greater than just using the NJC scheme in the first place Full and equal participation of trade union representatives, alongside the employers is a key principle for proper implementation of the scheme. The employer may initially feel this would slow down the grading review but it is crucial to the integrity of the scheme and helps to avoid unfair outcomes. Job evaluation gains maximum acceptance in the workplace when it is ‘owned' by both the employer and the employee. UNISON is a key player in terms of helping workforce understand process, communicating progress, bringing or removing credibility and recommending or not final package Is the NJC JE Scheme time consuming, given it is jointly operated? A local government single status pay and grading review is a complex process. It means reviewing the gradings of a large range of jobs currently graded in totally different ways and achieving new common grading/pay structures. which conform to the law on equal pay and are fair and bias free. Evaluating all jobs, irrespective of the JE Scheme used, will take time and effort, especially in the larger authorities. The Technical Working Group has indicated there is no particular evidence the NJC scheme is more time consuming compared to any other job evaluation scheme implemented with equal rigour. Fast track methods can be more risky because they may oversimplify the process of reviewing grades leading to unfairness and possible discrimination. In turn this is likely to lead to many individual appeals and lengthy and costly challenges to grading/pay structures as they affect particular occupational groups. The alternative costs to the employer deciding to use an alternative scheme to the NJC that does not meet its principles and equal pay claims are taken in consequence may be significantly greater than just using the NJC scheme in the first place Full and equal participation of trade union representatives, alongside the employers is a key principle for proper implementation of the scheme. The employer may initially feel this would slow down the grading review but it is crucial to the integrity of the scheme and helps to avoid unfair outcomes. Job evaluation gains maximum acceptance in the workplace when it is ‘owned' by both the employer and the employee. UNISON is a key player in terms of helping workforce understand process, communicating progress, bringing or removing credibility and recommending or not final package

14. Support for councils implementing the NJC JE Scheme There is unrivalled support for councils and unions implementing the NJC scheme: The Green Book Part 4 Guidance and User manual – sets out best practice and what needs to be done to implement the scheme The NJC Job Evaluation TWG has a continuing role to ensure NJC JES is up to date in terms of job evaluation and equality issues. It produces ongoing guidance and technical notes. All the documentation produced by the JETWG is available on the Employers’ Organisation website. Joint training materials – the TWG has produced a training pack for users. It costs £58 for local authorities and is available from the Employers Organisation. PILAT offer detailed induction training for the Gauge package, as part of the purchase price, as well as ongoing software support where needed. They also send out regular updates to councils who have purchased the package. NJC Associate Consultants – the NJC has also appointed accredited Associate Consultants to help individual local authorities on the practical and technical issues of implementing the scheme, including the computerised version of the scheme, Gauge. Their services may commissioned as and when required. There is a special NJC rate of £600 per day. Regional support and training is also provided through regional councils. NJC guidance on pay and grading reviews, equal pay reviews and equality impact assessment is tailored to use of the NJC JE scheme In summary, the NJC scheme package represents good value for money. Off the shelf schemes and user support have to be purchased, usually at higher costs. There are also sometimes less obvious costs for services or assistance beyond the set up package offered. Support for councils implementing the NJC JE Scheme There is unrivalled support for councils and unions implementing the NJC scheme: The Green Book Part 4 Guidance and User manual – sets out best practice and what needs to be done to implement the scheme The NJC Job Evaluation TWG has a continuing role to ensure NJC JES is up to date in terms of job evaluation and equality issues. It produces ongoing guidance and technical notes. All the documentation produced by the JETWG is available on the Employers’ Organisation website. Joint training materials – the TWG has produced a training pack for users. It costs £58 for local authorities and is available from the Employers Organisation. PILAT offer detailed induction training for the Gauge package, as part of the purchase price, as well as ongoing software support where needed. They also send out regular updates to councils who have purchased the package. NJC Associate Consultants – the NJC has also appointed accredited Associate Consultants to help individual local authorities on the practical and technical issues of implementing the scheme, including the computerised version of the scheme, Gauge. Their services may commissioned as and when required. There is a special NJC rate of £600 per day. Regional support and training is also provided through regional councils. NJC guidance on pay and grading reviews, equal pay reviews and equality impact assessment is tailored to use of the NJC JE scheme In summary, the NJC scheme package represents good value for money. Off the shelf schemes and user support have to be purchased, usually at higher costs. There are also sometimes less obvious costs for services or assistance beyond the set up package offered.

15. Relating Job Evaluation Scores to Grading and Pay (After the evaluations, the scores are added up for all the jobs that have been evaluated and a rank order of jobs by points scored is produced.) Once the rank order of jobs is produced, the Job Evaluation exercise is completed. The next stage in the process is to discuss a new fit for purpose modern pay structure. This slide lists the remaining steps to be taken to achieve this, starting with pay modelling. You will need to try out different models of pay structures to see what effect these have in equalities and technical terms and to find the pay structure that best suits the needs of the council. Neither employers nor unions should start JE and the pay and grading process with pre-set demands. In any job evaluation exercise, jobs should be evaluated before definite decisions are made on grading structures and linking JE scores to pay points. It is sensible, however, to have made decisions in principle about the form of the new grading and pay structure before the JE exercise is complete and preferably earlier. Relating Job Evaluation Scores to Grading and Pay (After the evaluations, the scores are added up for all the jobs that have been evaluated and a rank order of jobs by points scored is produced.) Once the rank order of jobs is produced, the Job Evaluation exercise is completed. The next stage in the process is to discuss a new fit for purpose modern pay structure. This slide lists the remaining steps to be taken to achieve this, starting with pay modelling. You will need to try out different models of pay structures to see what effect these have in equalities and technical terms and to find the pay structure that best suits the needs of the council. Neither employers nor unions should start JE and the pay and grading process with pre-set demands. In any job evaluation exercise, jobs should be evaluated before definite decisions are made on grading structures and linking JE scores to pay points. It is sensible, however, to have made decisions in principle about the form of the new grading and pay structure before the JE exercise is complete and preferably earlier.

16. And the NJC Job Evaluation Scheme scores have to be implemented properly UNISON believes the NJC JE scheme is the only scheme that will fully protect employers from equal pay claims - but only if pay and grading reviews are implemented properly. In the absence of any external funding, we estimate councils need to set aside 5% of payroll to implement single status properly. UNISON continues to campaign for Government funding for single status implementation but on the other hand councils have now had 8 years to put money aside to implement their new structure. Single status is almost impossible to implement on a nil/very low cost basis. The payline has to be set too low to make the authority attractive to work for, equal pay is not properly achieved, and /or savage cuts made elsewhere, some of which are probably discriminatory. Those authorities with significant social care and education staff as well as a range of male dominated jobs that may need protection make chances of managing nil cost implementation virtually nil even with the unhelpful arrangements described above. As previously stated, the NJC scheme is designed to cover all local government jobs up to Chief Officer level. Some authorities have tried to lower this boundary in the belief it will reduce costs if mid range jobs are evaluated on a different scheme than on the NJC scheme. However, if the boundary is placed much lower, equal pay issues will result at jobs at either side of the divide because of the way the 2 schemes likely to measure and value jobs. At more senior PO grades this is likely to be less of a factor but some councils have placed the boundary as low as scale 6, SO1, or SO2. Experience has shown this action leaves councils still vulnerable to equal pay claims amongst posts around the divide. And the NJC Job Evaluation Scheme scores have to be implemented properly UNISON believes the NJC JE scheme is the only scheme that will fully protect employers from equal pay claims - but only if pay and grading reviews are implemented properly. In the absence of any external funding, we estimate councils need to set aside 5% of payroll to implement single status properly. UNISON continues to campaign for Government funding for single status implementation but on the other hand councils have now had 8 years to put money aside to implement their new structure. Single status is almost impossible to implement on a nil/very low cost basis. The payline has to be set too low to make the authority attractive to work for, equal pay is not properly achieved, and /or savage cuts made elsewhere, some of which are probably discriminatory. Those authorities with significant social care and education staff as well as a range of male dominated jobs that may need protection make chances of managing nil cost implementation virtually nil even with the unhelpful arrangements described above. As previously stated, the NJC scheme is designed to cover all local government jobs up to Chief Officer level. Some authorities have tried to lower this boundary in the belief it will reduce costs if mid range jobs are evaluated on a different scheme than on the NJC scheme. However, if the boundary is placed much lower, equal pay issues will result at jobs at either side of the divide because of the way the 2 schemes likely to measure and value jobs. At more senior PO grades this is likely to be less of a factor but some councils have placed the boundary as low as scale 6, SO1, or SO2. Experience has shown this action leaves councils still vulnerable to equal pay claims amongst posts around the divide.

17. Conclusions - why use the NJC JES (1) The NJC scheme has been specifically designed to cover the wide range of local government jobs. It conforms with equal pay law. If equal pay is not dealt with adequately councils end up facing cases anyway. If these are successful, a multi-million claim in a medium sized unitary is not unlikely if won or settled. Authorities need to resource job evaluation and pay and grading to remove the threat of successful litigation The benefits of an equality proofed pay structure are good for employers and our members alike. The council should consider its priorities very seriously – does it want a fair paid, modernised workforce or something cobbled together because of funding restrictions and imposed by nil cost budget proposal? Investment in the workforce will help you deliver better services. New pay structures will be implemented in other councils in the area – perhaps not on nil or low cost basis which may result in workers going to work in same job elsewhere because it is better paid. Conclusions - why use the NJC JES (1) The NJC scheme has been specifically designed to cover the wide range of local government jobs. It conforms with equal pay law. If equal pay is not dealt with adequately councils end up facing cases anyway. If these are successful, a multi-million claim in a medium sized unitary is not unlikely if won or settled. Authorities need to resource job evaluation and pay and grading to remove the threat of successful litigation The benefits of an equality proofed pay structure are good for employers and our members alike. The council should consider its priorities very seriously – does it want a fair paid, modernised workforce or something cobbled together because of funding restrictions and imposed by nil cost budget proposal? Investment in the workforce will help you deliver better services. New pay structures will be implemented in other councils in the area – perhaps not on nil or low cost basis which may result in workers going to work in same job elsewhere because it is better paid.

18. Why use the NJC JES (2) The NJC scheme is open and transparent in how it is operated and in the publication of results and information. Best for maximum acceptance. Union partnership is crucial for workforce confidence. The NJC JES is the only scheme which has been designed jointly by the unions and the employers to be operated locally on a fully joint basis i.e. trade unions and employers working together in a genuinely equal partnership to achieve equal pay. The NJC scheme is free to local authorities and comes with unrivalled practical and technical support. There is also a computerised version to streamline the process. Why use the NJC JES (2) The NJC scheme is open and transparent in how it is operated and in the publication of results and information. Best for maximum acceptance. Union partnership is crucial for workforce confidence. The NJC JES is the only scheme which has been designed jointly by the unions and the employers to be operated locally on a fully joint basis i.e. trade unions and employers working together in a genuinely equal partnership to achieve equal pay. The NJC scheme is free to local authorities and comes with unrivalled practical and technical support. There is also a computerised version to streamline the process.

19. Why use the NJC JES (3) It is the NJC’s recommended scheme and both its manual and computerised versions have been implemented in a number of authorities of different type, size and location. And its not just the NJC’s recommendation. The independent Local Government Pay Commission reviewed the evidence and recommended that the NJC scheme should be used for single status reviews. UNISON is fully committed to a partnership approach to the forthcoming pay and grading review and urges you to use the NJC scheme to evaluate jobs. Given any alternative proposals have to comply with the principles of the NJC scheme, isn’t it simplest for you just to use the NJC scheme? Why use the NJC JES (3) It is the NJC’s recommended scheme and both its manual and computerised versions have been implemented in a number of authorities of different type, size and location. And its not just the NJC’s recommendation. The independent Local Government Pay Commission reviewed the evidence and recommended that the NJC scheme should be used for single status reviews. UNISON is fully committed to a partnership approach to the forthcoming pay and grading review and urges you to use the NJC scheme to evaluate jobs. Given any alternative proposals have to comply with the principles of the NJC scheme, isn’t it simplest for you just to use the NJC scheme?

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