slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Immunization

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 41

Immunization - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 118 Views
  • Uploaded on

Immunization. Dr. Tanveer Ashraf. Objectives. Types of vaccination Contraindications Discussion of individual vaccines Preparations Administration Precautions and contraindications Side effects. Active Immunization. Types Live attenuated Virus Measles, mumps, rubella Bacteria BCG

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Immunization ' - brie


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Immunization

Dr. Tanveer Ashraf

slide2

Objectives

  • Types of vaccination
  • Contraindications
  • Discussion of individual vaccines
    • Preparations
    • Administration
    • Precautions and contraindications
    • Side effects
slide3

Active Immunization

  • Types
  • Live attenuated
    • Virus Measles, mumps, rubella
    • Bacteria BCG
  • Killed
    • Virus Hepatitis B
    • Bacteria
      • Whole Pertussis
      • Toxoid Tetanus
      • Polysaccharide Meningoccocal
slide4

Human Immune Serum Globulin

  • Specific
    • IM Hepatitis B (HBIG)
  • Rabies (RIG)
  • Tetanus (TIG)
  • Varicella (VZIG)
    • IV CMV (CMV-IG)
  • RSV (RSV-IG)
slide5

Human Immune Serum Globulin

  • Non-specific
    • IM Immune serum globulin(ISG)
          • Hepatitis A
          • Measles
    • IV Intravenous immune globulin(IGIV)
          • Antibody deficiency disorders
          • ITP
          • Kawasaki syndrome
slide6

Passive Immunization (Cont)

  • SPECIFIC EQUINE ANTIBODIES (IM)
    • BOTULISM ANTITOXIN
    • DIPHTERIA ANTITOXIN
    • TETANUS ANTITOXIN
    • SNAKE & SPIDER ANTI-VENOM
  • MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES (IV)
    • ANTI-ENDOTOXIN ANTIBODIES
slide8

RECOMMENDED AGE

VACCINE(S)

BIRTH

BCG, Hepatitis B (HBV)

2 MONTHS

[DTP, HIB, HBV]

Injectable Polio Vaccine (IPV)

4 MONTHS

[DTP, HIB, HBV]

Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)

6 MONTHS

[DTP, HIB, HBV]

Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)

9 MONTHS

Measles vaccine (mono)

12 MONTHS

Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)

MMR

Varicella

1 8 MONTHS

Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)

DTP, HIB

Hepatitis A

24 MONTHS

Hepatitis A

4 – 6 YEARS

Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)

DTP

MMR

Varicella

slide9

General Contraindications

  • Moderate or severe illness with or without fever
  • Anaphylactic reaction to vaccine or vaccine constituent
  • Live attenuated vaccines
    • Pregnant women
    • Immunocompromised / Immunosuppressed children
    • within 3-11 months of immunoglobulin administration
slide10

Invalid Contraindications

  • Mild to moderate local reaction
  • Mild acute illness with or without low grade fever
  • Current antimicrobial therapy
  • Convalescent phase of illnesses
  • Prematurity and low birth weight
  • History of penicillin or other nonspecific allergies
  • Malnutrition
slide11

Immunization Of Special Groups

  • IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOSTS
  • Avoid MMR, measles (may be used in HIV)
  • Avoid OPV; use IPV for these children and their household contacts
  • PRETERM INFANTS
  • Treat as term babies
  • Avoid OPV in hospital
  • Influenza vaccine in BPD
  • may delay HBV if <2 kg & mother is HBsAG negative
slide13

Bacillus Calmette‑Guerin Vaccine (BCG)

  • INDICATIONS
    • All newborns
    • All tuberculin negative infants
  • PRECAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS(CI):
    • Give only to PPD negative children
    • CI in persons with immunodeficiencies
    • CI during pregnancy
slide14

Bacillus Calmette‑Guerin Vaccine (BCG)

  • SIDE EFFECTS
  • Local
    • Skin ulceration, regional lymphadenitis
    • Subcutaneous abscess
  • Generalized
    • Anaphylaxis, generalized BCG infection
    • (rare): osteitis
slide15

Hepatitis B

  • PREPARATIONS
    • ENGERIX‑B
    • RECOMBIVAX HB
slide16

Hepatitis B

  • ADMINISTRATION:
    • 0.5 ‑1 ML, anterolateral thigh or deltoid
    • IM injection
    • at 0,1 and 6 months
  • SIDE EFFECTS:
    • Pain
    • Arthralgia
slide17

Poliomyelitis Prophylaxis

  • PREPARATIONS
    • (A) Oral (OPV) SABIN (Live attenuated)
    • (B) Inactivated (eIPV) SALK (killed)
  • ADMINISTRATION
    • OPV 2 drops orally
    • eIPV SC injection
  • PRECAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS(CI)
    • (a)OPV pregnancy, immunodeficiency
    • (b)IPV neomycin hypersensitivity
  • ADVERSE REACTIONS
    • OPV paralytic disease (rare)
slide18

Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis (DTP)

  • PREPARATIONS
    • < 7 years : DTP, DT, DTaP (acellular pertussis vaccine)
    • > 7 years : Td, TdaP
  • ADMINISTRATION
    • IM
slide19

Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis (DTP)

  • CONTRAINDICATIONS (CI)
    • Encephalopathy within 7 days
    • Progressive or unstable neurological disorders
    • Anaphylactic reaction to a previous dose
  • PRECAUTIONS
    • severe systemic reactions such as
      • Temp > 40.50C
      • persistent inconsolable crying > 3 hours
      • Collapse episodes
      • Convulsions
slide20

Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR)

  • PREPARATIONS:
    • MEASLES.
    • MMR.
  • ADMINISTRATION:
    • SC.
  • INDICATIONS:
    • Primary immunization at 1 & 6 years.
slide21

Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR)

  • PRECAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS
  • Pregnancy
  • Anaphylaxis to eggs
  • Immunodeficiency and immunosuppression
  • Immunoglobulins within 3-11 months
slide22

Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR)

  • ADVERSE REACTIONS
    • Fever ,rash (7 days post vaccination)
    • Arthralgia , arthritis (rubella)
    • Encephalitis [rare] (measles, mumps)
    • Suppression of PPD skin test (measles)
    • Convulsions in prone children(measles)
    • Thrombocytopenia
slide23

Haemophilus Influenzae Type B

  • ADMINISTRATION
    • IM
    • 2,4,6 months, booster at 15 months
  • INDICATIONS
    • Children under 5 years of age
    • High risk children
  • SIDE EFFECTS:
    • Local pain and erythema
    • Mild fever
slide24

Varicella Prophylaxis

  • PREPARATIONS:
    • Varivax vaccine (MSD)
  • ADMINISTRATION:
    • 0.5 ml IM
    • 12 months and above……..2 doses
slide25

Varicella Prophylaxis

  • INDICATIONS:
    • All children 12 months‑18 years: (if no history of varicella)
  • EFFICACY:
    • 70‑90%
slide26

Varicella Prophylaxis

  • PRECAUTIONS & CONTRAITNDICATIONS:
    • Immunocompromised patients
    • Within 5 months of IG
    • Children on long term salicylates
  • SIDE EFFECTS:
    • Fever , rash
    • Zoster
slide27

Hepatitis A

  • NATURE OF VACCINE:
    • Killed formalin inactivated vaccine.
  • PREPARATIONS:
    • Various preparations available
    • e.g. Havrix 720 Junior, Havrix 1440 etc.
slide28

Hepatitis A

  • INDICATIONS:
    • children 1 year and above
      • Susceptible children in endemic areas
      • Chronic liver disease
      • Hemophilia
slide29

Hepatitis A

  • ADMINISTRATION:
    • IM injection
    • 2 doses, at least 6 months apart
  • ADVERSE REACTIONS:
    • Local reactions, fever
    • Rare: anaphylaxis
slide31

Pneumococcal Prophylaxis

  • PREPARATIONS:
    • Purified capsular polysaccharide of 23 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • 7 valent conjugated vaccine
  • ADMINISTRATION:
    • IM / SC
    • 1 dose/booster 5 years
slide32

Pneumococcal Prophylaxis

  • INDICATIONS:
    • Primary vaccination (conjugate vaccine)
    • children 2 yr. or older with
      • Anatomical or functional asplenia
      • Sickle cell disease
      • Nephrotic syndrome
      • Immunosuppression
slide33

Pneumococcal Prophylaxis

  • SIDE EFFECTS:
      • Soreness , erythema, fever, myalgia
      • Anaphylactic reactions (rare)
slide34

Meningococcal Prophylaxis

  • PREPARATIONS:
    • monovalent (A or C)
    • bivalent (A & C)
    • quadrivalent (A,C,Y & W‑135)
    • quadrivalent conjugate quadrivalent
  • ADMINISTRATION:
    • SC
slide35

Meningococcal Prophylaxis

  • INDICATIONS:
    • Control of outbreaks
    • Children with complement deficiencies or asplenia
  • SIDE EFFECTS:
    • local erythema and discomfort
    • transient fever
slide36

Influenza Virus

  • Nature of vaccine:
    • Killed vaccine.
    • Live attenuated
  •  Preparations:
    • whole and “split virus” vaccines.
    • “split virus” vaccines are recommended for children 6 months and older.
    • composition of the vaccine is changed annually.
slide37

Influenza Virus

  • ADMINISTRATION:
    • IM (killed).
    • Live attenuated (intranasal).
    • 1 dose during influenzae season.
    • Children 6months-9 years should receive an additional dose, 4 weeks after the 1st dose, if not previously immunized.
slide38

Influenza Virus

  • Indications:
    • chronic cardio-respiratory disease
      • asthma
      • cystic fibrosis
      • bronchopulmonary dysplasia
slide39

Influenza Virus

  • Indications:
    • Sickle cell anemia.
    • Chronic salicylate therapy.
    • Diabetes mellitus.
    • Chronic renal disease.
    • Chronic metabolic disease.
    • immunosuppressive conditions: cancer, HIV etc.
    • Hospital personnel with significant patient contact.
slide40

Influenza Virus

  • Contraindication:
    • Anaphylaxis to previous dose.
    • Hypersensitivity to eggs.
  • Adverse Reaction:
    • Soreness at injection site.
    • Allergic response.
    • Guillain-Barré Syndrome.
slide41

New Vaccines

  • Rota virus vaccines
  • Human papilloma virus vaccine
ad