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Ch 10, Part 2 Central Nervous System (CNS). The grooves on the brain are called sulci . The elevated ridges are gyri . Deeper grooves are fissures . Learning Objectives Name the major regions of the adult brain and all related structures of importance.

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Ch 10, Part 2 Central Nervous System (CNS)

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Ch 10 part 2 central nervous system cns

Ch10, Part 2 Central Nervous System (CNS)

The grooves on the brain are called sulci. The elevated ridges are gyri. Deeper grooves are fissures.

Learning Objectives

Name the major regions of the adult brain and all related structures of importance.

Be able to state the functions of each brain structure.

It is not possible to tickle yourself. The cerebellum, a part of the brain, warns the rest of the brain that you are about to tickle yourself. Since your brain knows this, it ignores the resulting sensation.

How well do you know the brain

How Well Do You Know the Brain?


Once a human reaches the age of 35, he/she will start losing approximately 7,000 brain cells a day. The cells will never be replaced.

Basic parts of the brain external pgs 205 206

Basic Parts of the Brain – External pgs. 205-206

Label the structures on your practice diagram.

Parietal lobe

Frontal lobe

Occipital lobe

Temporal lobe

Great Brain website:

Parts of the brain internal pg 206 207

Parts of the Brain internal pg.206-207

The brain has hollow, chambers called _______________ filled with cerebrospinal fluid and lined with ependymal cells.


(all areas in blue)

Parts of the brain what do they do pg 207

Parts of the Brain: What Do They Do? Pg 207

* See handout

Getting familiar with the cerebral hemispheres conscious mind

Getting Familiar with the Cerebral Hemispheres (“Conscious Mind”)

Cerebral hemispheres account for 83% of brain mass.

Brain hemispheres have 3 basic regions:

  • A superficial _______ of gray matter (which looks gray in fresh brain tissue).

  • An internal ________ matter.

  • Islands of gray matter ______ within the white matter.

Do you Know the Difference Between Gray and White Matter?

Here’s a tip:

What is gray matter? Contains just cell bodies and dendrites (no myelin)

What is white matter? Myelinated nerve fibers (those with fatty white protein coverings)

Cerebral cortex continued

Cerebral Cortex continued

Contains three kinds of functional areas:

  • _____ areas (control voluntary movement)

  • _______ areas (conscious awareness of sensations)

  • ________ areas (areas that give meaning to the information we receive, store it in memory if needed, tie it to previous knowledge, and decide what action to take)

Cerebral hemisphere continued

Cerebral Hemisphere continued

  • Each hemisphere is chiefly concerned with the sensory and motor functions of the ________ side of the body.

Over 80% of the brain is water.




Epithalamus (pineal gland)


Forms the ______ ________ of the forebrain.

Consists of three paired structures:




Diencephalon continued

Diencephalon continued

Thalamus sorts and edits ____________.

Recognizes impulses as _______ or _______.

Helps coordinate _______ activities.

Important to ______________.

The _________ to the cerebral cortex.

Diencephalon continued1

Diencephalon continued

  • Hypothalamusplays a role in 7 key areas. List (and briefly summarize) those areas in your notes now:








Diencephalon continued2

Diencephalon continued

  • Epithalamus encompasses the _________

    which secretes the hormone melatonin.

    Melatonin induces sleep.

Brain stem review

Brain Stem Review

  • Midbrain

  • Pons

  • Medulla oblongata

Brain stem midbrain

Brain Stem: MidBrain

  • What does it do?

  • If impaired in its core, results in the loss of _____________ or coma.

  • The dorsal or posterior part is important for visual system reflexes, and ___________.

  • The ventral or anterior part is important for _______________________.

  • Two other structures in the depth of the midbrain are important for normal ___________.

Brain stem pons

Brain Stem: Pons

  • Allows conversations between the cerebral cortex and ________.

  • Help medulla maintain normal rhythm of _____________.

Brain stem medulla oblongata

Brain Stem: Medulla Oblongata

  • Helps maintain ________

    3 other additional roles.




Heart and blood pressure


Vomiting, hiccupping, swallowing, coughing, and sneezing

Discussion things that can go wrong in the cns

Discussion – Things That Can Go Wrong in the CNS

  • Answer this question in your notes:

    What causes a stroke? And, if a lesion occurs in the left side of the brain, what side of the body is effected?

Signs of a Stroke

Can you figure these out

Can You Figure These Out?

Interesting Brain Teasers:

  • Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with depression than men in the United States.

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