A unified langauge model architecture for web based speech recognition grammars
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A Unified Langauge Model Architecture for Web-based Speech Recognition Grammars. XML. ABNF. IHD. BNF. JSGF. BNF. Wesley Holland, Daniel May, Julie Baca, Georgios Lazarou, Joseph Picone Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems Mississippi State University. Speech Recognition. Acoustic Model

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A Unified Langauge Model Architecture for Web-based Speech Recognition Grammars

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A unified langauge model architecture for web based speech recognition grammars

A Unified Langauge Model Architecture for Web-based Speech Recognition Grammars

XML

ABNF

IHD

BNF

JSGF

BNF

Wesley Holland, Daniel May, Julie Baca, Georgios Lazarou, Joseph Picone

Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems

Mississippi State University


A unified langauge model architecture for web based speech recognition grammars

  • Speech Recognition

  • Acoustic Model

    • Maps audio data to words or phonemes

  • Language Model

    • Specifies order in which a sequence of words or phonemes is likely to occur

    • Described using grammar


A unified langauge model architecture for web based speech recognition grammars

  • Grammar Specifications

  • Backus-Naur Form (BNF)

  • Augmented BNF (ABNF)

  • JSpeech Grammar Format (JSGF)

  • Speech Recognition Grammar Specification (SRGS)

  • ISIP Hierarchical Digraph (IHD)

BNF

ABNF

JSGF

<A>::=aB

<B>::=bB

<B>::=ε

<A>::=ab*

<A>=a(b)*;

XML-SRGS

IHD

a

<item repeat=“0-”>

b

</item>


A unified langauge model architecture for web based speech recognition grammars

  • Conversion Design

  • Goals

    • JSGF ↔ IHD

    • XML-SRGS ↔ IHD

    • Determination of equivalence

    • Grammar minimization

  • Final Architecture

XML

ABNF

BNF

IHD

JSGF


A unified langauge model architecture for web based speech recognition grammars

  • JSGF/XML-SRGS → ABNF

  • JSGF→ABNF

    • Trivial

    • Similar in syntax and structure to ABNF

  • XML-SRGS →ABNF

    • Harder than JSGF

    • Different in syntax and structure from ABNF

    • Requires enumeration of certain repeat attributes

JSGF

ABNF

<A>=ab*;

<A>::=ab*

XML-SRGS

ABNF

<item repeat=‘1-2’>

a

b

</item>

<S>::=(ab)|(abab)

<item repeat=‘2-’>

a

b

</item>

<S>::=abab(ab)*


A unified langauge model architecture for web based speech recognition grammars

  • JSGF/XML-SRGS → ABNF

  • XML-SRGS →ABNF (continued)

    • Different weighting mechanisms (weight and repeat-prob attributes)

a

<item repeat=“0-” repeat-prob=“.45”>

b

</item>

<one-of>

<item weight=“.4”>c</item>

<item weight=“.6”>d</item>

</one-of>


A unified langauge model architecture for web based speech recognition grammars

  • ABNF → BNF

  • Normalized BNF

    • Consists of rules of the following formats:

      • (RULE_NAME)::=(TERMINAL),(NON_TERMINAL)

      • (RULE_NAME)::=(NON_TERMINAL)

      • (RULE_NAME)::=ε

ABNF

  • Break rule into multiple rules at each top-level alternation. Recurse on each rule.

  • For each concatenation, Kleene star, or Kleene plus, extract a set of left symbols and a set of right symbols.

  • For n left symbols and m right symbols, create n x m connecting rules.

  • ABNF → BNF

    • Complicated

    • Accomplished using a recursive algorithm that extracts sets of normalized BNF rules from a set of ABNF rules

BNF


A unified langauge model architecture for web based speech recognition grammars

  • BNF ↔ IHD

  • BNF ↔ IHD

    • Each arc translates to a normalized BNF

    • Terminals correspond to nodes; concatenations correspond to arcs

BNF

IHD


A unified langauge model architecture for web based speech recognition grammars

  • BNF → JSGF/XML-SRGS

  • BNF →JSGF/XML-SRGS

    • Rule-by-rule

    • Trivial

XML-SRGS

<rule id=“a”>

a

<ruleref uri=“#b”/>

</rule>

<rule id=“b”>

<one-of>

<item>

b

<ruleref uri=“#b”/>

</item>

<item>

<ruleref special=

“NULL”/>

</item>

</one-of>

</rule>

BNF

JSGF

<A>::=aB

<B>::=bB

<B>::=ε

<A>=aB;

<B>=b|bB;


A unified langauge model architecture for web based speech recognition grammars

  • Software Tools

  • ISIP Network Converter

    • Console tool to perform conversions to and from arbitrary grammar formats

  • ISIP Network Builder

    • Java-based graphical tool to design

    • grammars as finite state machines

    • Can exports grammars to JSGF,

    • XML-SRGS, ABNF, BNF, and IHD

  • ISIP Language Model Tester

    • Console tool for testing of grammars

    • Can generate valid sentences in a given grammar

    • Can parse sentences and determine if accepted by a given grammar.


A unified langauge model architecture for web based speech recognition grammars

  • Summary

  • Future Work

    • Web-based front-end to speech recognition software

    • Mobile speech recognition

  • Public Domain Toolkit

    • Contains language model conversion tools

    • Public domain – available for download


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