Making sense of qualitative data the grounded theory approach to discovery
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Making Sense of Qualitative Data: The Grounded Theory Approach to Discovery. Karen Locke, Ph D W. Brooks George Professor Mason School of Business College of William and Mary. Context. What is the situation in which we come to be participating in a workshop on grounded theory today?.

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Making sense of qualitative data the grounded theory approach to discovery

Making Sense of Qualitative Data: The Grounded Theory Approach to Discovery

Karen Locke, Ph D

W. Brooks George Professor

Mason School of Business

College of William and Mary


Context

Context

  • What is the situation in which we come to be participating in a workshop on grounded theory today?


Qualitative research in management organization studies

Qualitative Research in management & Organization studies

  • Prosecuted within an increasingly differentiated institutional context

  • Without an infrastructure of courses and apprenticeships to match interest

  • An expanding “umbrella domain”


Where is the grounded theory tradition today

Where is the grounded theory tradition today

7,640,000


Contest evolution

Contest & evolution


Grounded theory in management org studies today

GROUNDED THEORY IN MANAGEMENT & ORG. STUDIES TODAY

  • GT as a signifier typifying non hypothetico-deductive research (the theory building)??

  • GT as a ceremonial citation masking “common sensing” your way through data??

  • GT as site of contested intellectual property rights

  • GT as part of a new landscape of methodological multilingualism??

  • GT as part of researchers’ individually shaped methodological vocabularies and practices??

  • GT as one vocabulary and set of practical heuristics evident in “discovery oriented” research practice.


Workshop objectives

Workshop Objectives

  • Understand grounded theory’s intellectual tradition

  • Understand the general contours of and logic underlying this foundational tradition in qualitative research

  • Learn and experience the practice of its operational procedures (e.g. theoretical sampling, category development, constant comparison, memoing etc)

  • Appreciate their contribution to “discovery”


Method separates from discovery

Method Separates From “Discovery”

  • “Discovery concerns the origin, creation, genesis, and invention of scientific theories and hypotheses. Justification concerns their evaluation, test, defense, success, truth, and confirmation. Discovery is for description alone, for psychology and the history of the sociology of science. Justification, however, is for the philosophy of science and epistemology “ (Kordig, 1978; p. 110).


Yet advantages of discovery oriented qualitative approaches

Yet… advantages of discovery oriented qualitative approaches?

  • Allow the “real” world of work to inform, press against and shape theorizing (urges theoretical open mindedness)

  • Can capture complexity through multi-faced accounts of action

  • Identify the process or “how” discovered outcomes are generated

  • Serendipitous findings can spur new research


Advantages of discovery oriented qualitative approaches

…advantages of discovery oriented qualitative approaches?

  • Investigate how participants make sense of events and behaviors at work

  • Identify how local meanings influence behavior

  • Explore in detail how context shapes meaning, experience, and behavior -link to practice

  • Investigate new developments in the world of work


Discovery achievements

Discovery Achievements

  • Documenting Evolution and Change

  • Challenging Rational Perspectives on Workplace Behavior

  • Troubling Existing Theoretical Conceptions

    (Locke, 2011 Academy of Management Annals)


Discovery necessitates a recursive contingent research design

Discovery Necessitates A Recursive, Contingent Research Design

“Funnel Shaped”(Hammersley & Atkinson, 1983)

“Garbage Can II”(Grady and Wallston, 1988)

“An iterative process that involves “tacking” back and forth between implications of components of design”(Maxwell,2005)

Implications

“The complete analysis isn’t” (Michael Quinn Patton, 2002)

Flexibility in research question, data gathering, theoretical formulations

The experience of ambiguity and instability in the process


An interactive recursive model of research design

An Interactive /Recursive Model of Research Design

Conceptual Context

Purposes

Research Questions

Methods

Quality

(Maxwell, J. 2005. Qualitative Research Design. Sage)


Openness emergence

Openness & Emergence

Embarking on a project without knowing where we will end up. That is being unsure

  • As to what our specific research question will be (Barley, 1990)

  • What data we will have gathered (Van Maanen, 1998)

  • What the project will end up being ‘a case of’ (Becker/ Ragin, 1992)

  • What concepts we will have developed (Agar 2006)


Observed particulars

Observed Particulars

Dave is research scientist who owns pants with duct-taped pockets to accommodate a set of forty-odd keys carried on two separate rings connected by a spring clip.

In the 4 years since Dave configured his keys in this way, “the only times Dave has actually used the spring clip feature to separate his keys were to temporarily loan out one side or the other, take a leisure trip to Europe, and once while he moved house” (Nippert-Eng, 1996; p. 49).


Making sense of qualitative data the grounded theory approach to discovery

Karen Locke Ph D College of William and Mary


Conjectural work

Conjectural Work

“There is nothing but imagination that can ever supply [us] an inkling of the truth. [We] can stare stupidly at phenomena; but in the absence of imagination they will not connect themselves together in any rational way” (C. S. Peirce CP 1:46)

The ability to engage the confounding array of talk, action, feelings, images, and texts that is field data. And, in the context of this engagement, [without recourse to a prior theoretical specification] to imagine processes, structures, or characterizations such that were they operative, they would render the data intelligible.


Gt practices drive this interplay

GT practices drive this interplay


The grounded theory approach

The Grounded Theory Approach

An approach to qualitative analysis that develops abstract conceptualizations through microscopic data analysis.


Exercise for your selected study

Exercise: For your selected study…

  • What “phenomenon” was the researcher/s interested in exploring – what was the study’s purpose?

  • What did they do – what was their research design?

    • What references to GT did they make?

    • What practices did these point to?

  • How well did the study’s design and data gathering approach access the phenomenon?

  • What did the study yield? What categories? What theoretical narrative?


What practices make a theory grounded

What practices make a theory grounded?

  • approach your study leary of the ways in which the phenomena has been framed and explained

  • organize your data gathering so that you can access in detail the perspectives of the actors involved in the phenomenon (how they understand their world, what they are doing and why)

  • sample theoretically

  • Conceptualize and code microscopically

  • analyze the data systematically and comparatively

  • continually enrich your thinking by reading widely around the phenomena

  • grow your theory by going back and forth between progressively more focused data and successively more abstract conceptualizations of them

  • integrate the emergent categories around a narrative


Analysis heads up

Analysis: “Heads Up”

  • Assigning meaning to unstructured and ambiguous data, within a flexible recursive process

    • Begin analysis as you gather data NOT after

    • Progressively narrow to one process within the data (this will not be linear!)

    • Narrow to one part of that process

    • Data gathering and analysis are iterative (expect analysis to impact data collection)


Making sense of qualitative data the grounded theory approach to discovery

THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTUAL CATEGORIES (c.f. Grounded Theory)

Fracture, Chunk and

Name Data

Compare, Compile

& Rename

Data Fragments

Theoretically

Driven Data

Sampling

Generate Provisional

Conceptualizations

with their Indicators

Develop Robust Working

Conceptualizations

Process is “finished” when core categories are theoretically saturated – (in theory)


Character and experience of grounded theory data sense making process

Character and Experience of Grounded Theory Data Sense Making Process

  • Creative opened-ended dimension

  • Mechanical procedural dimension

  • Individual analyst is central agent

  • Meaning making is richer when the process is a social one


I sampling in grounded theory

I. Sampling in Grounded Theory

Information not statistical generalization

NOT random … never, never, never, never …

BTW, did I mention sampling is never random?


Purposive theoretical sampling driven by information needs

Purposive & Theoretical Sampling -Driven by Information Needs

  • The logic of theoretical or purposive sampling is that you select units which will provide you rich information relative to your orienting research questions

  • Theoretical sampling to expand, check and refine conceptual categories. Conceptually-driven sequential sampling- usually not wholly pre-specified, but can evolve once fieldwork begins.

  • Sampling reflects researcher interests in the evolving fit between gathered data and the emerging theory. You sample for the purpose of developing your emerging theory.


Ensuring sampling focus c larifying units of social organization expressing our phenomena

Ensuring Sampling Focus: Clarifying units of Social Organization Expressing Our Phenomena

  • Social Practices – recurring categories of normal talk or action

  • Episodes – significant events in the life of…

  • Encounters – 2 or more persons mutually involved

  • Roles – categories of person (formal roles, informal roles, social types)

  • Relationships – parties interacting over period of time, viewing themselves as connected in some way (vary in a gazillion ways, interdependence, power, trust, information regarding each other, etc)

  • Groups

  • Organizations – goal pursuing entities with formal and informal strategies

  • Processes

  • May have interpretive, emotional as well as agency aspects

    (Adapted from Lofland & Lofland, 1995)


Data forms

Data Forms

  • Interview transcripts – e.g. accounts of people’s experiences

  • Field notes – observations of what people do, say, and understand

  • Documentary evidence – policy documents, texts, memos, emails, accident reports, etc.

  • Visual elements, e.g. drawings, photographs, graphics, etc.

    (We end up with a large amount of unstructured and uncategorized data)


Ensuring data quality

Ensuring Data Quality

  • Is it the right data for the job?

    • Does the data fit with your phenomenon?

  • Is it “thick” enough?

    • Do you have a detailed record of what those you are researching, do, see, hear, experience and understand

    • Do you have examples, histories, stories, explanations

    • Do you only have “opinions” … I think


Creating data and making meaning

Creating “Data” and “Making Meaning”

Interactive, Recursive, and Interdependent

Relying on multiple “meaning making” activities


Articulating what your data might mean

Articulating What Your Data Might Mean

  • Meaning Making Activities

    • Developing contact summaries

    • Creating data units

    • Creating ideas about /Inventively naming data chunks (developing categories)

    • Conceptually developing categories through constant comparison

    • Analytic Memoing

    • Creating an overarching organization for your data (Action strategy models, conditions/consequences models, stage models, typologies, etc.)

    • Framing theoretical implications – contributing to the literature


A different analytic procedure domain analysis

A Different Analytic Procedure: Domain Analysis

DOMAIN

Professor

(Cover Term)

Is a kind of

Semantic Relationship

Motivator Decision maker

Included Terms

Spradley, J. (1980) Participant Observation


Other potential semantic relationships

Other Potential Semantic Relationships

  • Spatial X is a place in Y / X is a part of Y

  • Cause-effect X is a result of Y

  • Rationale X is a reason for doing Y

  • Location for action X is a place for doing Y

  • Function X is used for Y

  • Means-end X is a way to Y

  • Sequence X is a step (stage) in Y

  • Attribution X is a characteristic of Y


Articulating what your data might mean1

Articulating What Your Data Might Mean

How does identity expanding learning (learning that transforms who you are) occur?


Ii contact summaries

II. Contact Summaries

Begin actively thinking about data

Create a general indexing system

Miles & Huberman 1994


Making sense of qualitative data the grounded theory approach to discovery

Contact Summary-How does identity expanding learning occur?

  • What people, events or situations were involved?

  • What were the main themes or issues?

  • What research questions did the contact bear most closely on?

  • What new speculations or guesses were suggested by the contact?

  • Where should you place most energy during the next contact, what sorts of information should be collected?

    [Miles & Huberman, 1994]


Iii chunking observations to create data

III. Chunking Observations to create “data”

How do you take streams of observations (field notes, archival documents, transcripts) and turn them into little pieces of data that can be worked with analytically?


Making sense of qualitative data the grounded theory approach to discovery

The Development of Conceptual Categories (c.f. Grounded Theory)

Fracture, Chunk and

Name Data

Compare, Compile

& Rename

Data Fragments

Theoretically

Driven Data

Sampling

Generate Provisional

Conceptualizations

with their Indicators

Develop Robust Working

Conceptualizations

Process is “finished” when core categories are theoretically saturated – (theoretically)


How would you chunk this data

How would you chunk this data?

SUBJECT: So right away, I know I'm not

3 making a decision, I'm making a

4 recommendation which is always easy to waffle

5 on, apologize for, or mitigate.

6 This also allows me to make, sort of –

7 I won't feel as constrained. I can probably

8 actually make a little bit more, the kind of

9 decision I want to make here, which is more

10 gut based than factual.

11 I can already tell this is going to get

12 political. I can already discern this is

13 going to be a powder keg.


Developing conceptual categories chunking fracturing and naming data

Developing Conceptual Categories: Chunking Fracturing and Naming Data

  • Convention is line by line

  • In practice this may be a few words, a sentence, several sentences

  • It should be a meaningful, discrete unit

  • Name what’s happening (keep it active and dynamic)

    * You are trying to avoid generating impressionistic “themes” rather than data specified grounded categories


Iv meaning making open coding

IV. Meaning Making / Open Coding

Active Naming Imagining

Comparing


Data as an indicator seeing as

Data as an indicator – “Seeing as…”

Ceci n’est pas la soupe!


Seeing as inventive naming or conceptualizing

“SEEING AS” INVENTIVE NAMING OR CONCEPTUALIZING

[We] “can stare stupidly at phenomena; but in the absence of imagination they will not connect themselves together in any rational way.” Peirce, 1896

This work of imagining what might be – accounting for, and at the same time remaining accountable to the data - is our concern


Making sense of qualitative data the grounded theory approach to discovery

It was more than fifteen years ago that I entered the laboratory of Professor Agassiz, and told him I had enrolled my name in the scientific school as a student of natural history. He asked me a few questions about my object in coming, my antecedents generally, the mode in which I afterwards proposed to use the knowledge I might acquire, and finally, whether I wished to study any special branch.

To the latter I replied that while I wished to be well grounded in all departments of zoology, I purposed to devote myself specially to insects.

"When do you wish to begin?" he asked.

"Now," I replied.

This seemed to please him, and with an energetic "Very well," he reached from a shelf a huge jar of specimens in yellow alcohol.

"Take this fish," he said, "and look at it; we call it a Haemulon; by and by I will ask what you have seen."

With that he left me, but in a moment returned with explicit instructions as to the care of the object entrusted to me.

"No man is fit to be a naturalist," said he, "who does not know how to take care of specimens."


Generative questions to pose to your data that facilitate conceptualization

Generative questions to pose to your data that facilitate conceptualization

  • What is happening?

  • What might this be a case of / what can I think of this as being about?

  • What is the actor doing?

  • What is the basic problem faced by the actor/s here?

  • What do these actions and statements take for granted?

  • What question about my topic does this data suggest?

  • What imagery or metaphor does this data evoke?

    How is this fragment the same as and different from others?


V meaning making

V. Meaning Making

Developing Conceptual Categories


Making sense of qualitative data the grounded theory approach to discovery

The Development of Conceptual Categories (c.f. Grounded Theory)

Fracture, Chunk and

Name Data

Compare, Compile

& Rename

Data Fragments

Theoretically

Driven Data

Sampling

Generate Provisional

Conceptualizations

with their Indicators

Develop Robust Working

Conceptualizations

Process is “finished” when core categories are theoretically saturated


Developing categories from data chunks

Developing Categories From Data Chunks

Category Working Label:

Data Source:

Data Samples Constituting Category:

Interview #

Interview #


Constant comparison

Constant Comparison

How is this fragment the same as and different from others?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nxIErzX3aQQ&feature=related


Constant comparison how are these the same and different

Constant comparison: How are these the same and different?

  • “Slowly I drew forth that hideous fish, and with a feeling of desperation again looked at it.”

  • “When I had finished, he waited as if expecting more, and then, with an air of disappointment:”

  • “…so I walked home by Charles River in a distracted state, with my two perplexities.”


Constant comparison how are these the same and different1

Constant Comparison: How are these the same and different?

  • Finally, just to start some kind of action, I began copying. In my slow, painstaking ragged handwriting, I copied into my tablet everything printed on that first page, down to the punctuation marks.

  • I pushed my fingers down its throat to see how sharp its teeth were. I began to count the scales in the different rows until I was convinced that that was nonsense. At last a happy thought struck me --- I would draw the fish; and now with surprise I began to discover new features in the creature.


Making sense of qualitative data the grounded theory approach to discovery

The Development of Conceptual Categories (c.f. Grounded Theory)

Fracture, Chunk and

Name Data

Compare, Compile

& Rename

Data Fragments

Theoretically

Driven Data

Sampling

Generate Provisional

Conceptualizations

with their Indicators

Develop Robust Working

Conceptualizations

Process is “finished” when core categories are theoretically saturated


Out of his comfort zone floundering

Out of his comfort zone /floundering

  • I turned it over and around; looked it in the face -- ghastly; from behind, beneath, above, sideways, at a three-quarters view -- just as ghastly. I was in despair; at an early hour, I concluded that lunch was necessary; so with infinite relief…

  • Slowly I drew forth that hideousfish, and with a feeling of desperationagain looked at it.

  • When I had finished, he waited as if expecting more, and then, with an air of disappointment:"You have not looked very carefully; why," he continued, more earnestly, "you haven't seen one of the most conspicuous features of the animal, which is as plainly before your eyes as the fish itself. Look again; look again!" And he left me to my misery

  • I was piqued; I was mortified. Still more of that wretched fish…

  • professor inquired “Do you see it yet?" "No," I replied. "I am certain I do not, but I see how little I saw before."

  • This was disconcerting; not only must I think of my fish all night, studying, without the object before me,…

  • "Do you perhaps mean," I asked, "that the fish has symmetrical sides with paired organs?“

  • I became increasingly frustrated at not being able to express what I wanted to convey

  • It was sad; I couldn’t even write a straight line

  • I spent two days just rimming uncertainly through the dictionary’s pages

Learning to see / be involves stepping out of your comfort zone—voluntarily or involuntarily— how tentative and unsure of himself he is (bolded words)


Portraying a divided literature

Portraying a divided literature

Unfortunately, the relevant literature offers contradictory assessments of the ability of the social sciences to account for these phenomena. One the one hand we are told that “Max Weber was the first to consider bureaucracy as the problem of industrial society () that he articulated the “classical theory of bureaucracy () …All this clearly conveys the impression that Weber’s work on bureaucracy constitutes …a paradigm...On the other hand the same literature contends that all theories of bureaucracies, including Weber’s are “underdeveloped” ()..

As with any new perspective, its [culture’s] vagaries, disjunctions and confusions must be carefully addressed for the research tradition to advance. One of the most depressing disputes organizational culture research is what, exactly, constitutes a culture… Although the dichotomy is not exact, two major research traditions are emerging …functionalist… interpretive ()

Stress has been studied from a number of perspectives, but rather than producing consensus, this research has portrayed stress variously…

Previous Labels: Research results confused

Links with: Negative findings, Literature progressing


Recommendations when developing categories

Recommendations when developing categories

  • Generate multiple category names for data fragments (c.f. brainstorming)

  • Do assign data fragments to more than one category (discreteness will come later, don’t force it)

  • Do not use technical jargon, ie prior specified theory as category names (bracket it out)

  • Category names are flexible, use images, phrases, sentences

  • Category names should be a good fit for the data incident being described

  • When a category has 6-12 data indicators, write a formal definition of that category


Recommendations when developing categories1

Recommendations when developing categories

  • Do be on the look out for developing major or “core” categories

  • Be aware how many conceptual categories you have in development

  • Too many categories? Make a list of all the category names; ask yourself, which ones are similar which ones are different?


Vi theoretical sampling

VI. Theoretical Sampling

In light of your developing categories, what kinds of data do you need to develop them further?


Making sense of qualitative data the grounded theory approach to discovery

The Development of Conceptual Categories (c.f. Grounded Theory)

Fracture, Chunk and

Name Data

Compare, Compile

& Rename

Data Fragments

Theoretically

Driven Data

Sampling

Generate Provisional

Conceptualizations

with their Indicators

Develop Robust Working

Conceptualizations

Process is “finished” when core categories are theoretically saturated


Vii memoing

VII. Memoing

Central to emergence, i.e. growing your theory

A methodological practice

An exploration


Analytic memoing

Analytic Memoing

  • Central analytic procedure

  • Any writing that is done in relationship to the research other than actual field notes, transcription or coding.

  • A way of getting things down on paper to facilitate reflection and insight

  • A way of helping you understand and make sense of your topic and your data

  • Prose that tell what your conceptual categories, matrices, contact summary elements are about

  • Connect ideas, data, and theory


Memoing

Memoing

  • p. 34 it is imperative to engage in a written conversation with yourself. Imagine yourself sitting at a desk in a year or so , actually beginning to write, ore confident then than now, having a firmer sense of the patterning of things, perusing all the notes, transcripts and documents that you have gathered. Those materials are, in effect, messages to a future self, and they will lose some of their immediacy and context. What is clear NOW will not be so clear later on. Patiently explain to a future self what you are doing, why you think it is interesting, why you have chosen to record what you have, what relevance it will have

    Rock: Handbook of Ethnography


Types of memo from simple to complex

Types of Memo:From simple to complex

  • Simple, elemental memos – a rendering of emerging thinking on a specific category on research question in more general terms.

    • How you personally relate to actors and/or the phenomenon

    • Your code/ category choices and working definitions/understandings

  • More complex memos – render thinking on categories’ relationships, include exploration of possible links to existing theory.

    • Relationships among categories and your research questions


Excerpt from early memo

Excerpt from early memo

The second clearest category comprises those papers that perhaps create an intellectual imperative for what is to follow. There seem to be two textual acts that are key here. The first is to launch a serious critique of the literature, (even though it –the lit- is used to establish consensus on the importance of the topic for organization studies) They seriously impugn the existing literature literature as demonstrating that it is not up to the task of dealing with the investigatory domain identified. So, Barley suggests that existing approaches haven’t got at the social construction of meaning, Gephart suggests that existing approaches haven’t got at how succession is produced, Hirschhorn and Gilmore suggest that existing organizational change traditions cannot deal with organizations in crisis type situations. There seem to be various ways in which the literature is shown to be not up to the task, one might be that it cannot address certain phenomena, another might be that it is contradictory or in confusion, another may be that it is not studying what it thinks it is studying, etc. The second act is to introduce and/or legitimate the new and more fruitful tradition

Ideas about what you think is happening, contact with the categories you are developing, contact with literature?


Excerpt from memo embodiment in org studies

Excerpt from Memo – Embodiment in Org. Studies

  • Last night’s class focused on meditation and mantra got me thinking about two things. First how much mantras or particular kinds of practices are present for example the sports psychology stuff. See the current issue of running journal. Second, discussion of the state one was trying to achieve in meditation reminded me of Czsenkmihalyi’s work on flow … a particular kind of mind/body consciousness disposition. What about mindfulness? Think about the edited volume on embodied … and it is an example of such practices already entering organization studies. The question is where else does the embodied piece enter organization studies… the practice work – not really have practices disconnected from bodies (*possible contribution).


Viii growing theories

VIII. Growing Theories

More than a collection of categories – how do the categories relate to each other?

What stories/ narratives can be developed from observations and in process conceptualizations?


Some vocabulary questions theoretical elements what s how s and why s when s

Some Vocabulary Questions/Theoretical Elements- what’s, how’s and why’s, when’s

  • Types – exclusive categories of social units, aspects

  • Structure – constituent dimensions, detailed organization

  • Process – operations over time expressed as phases or cycles …

  • Agency – strategies used to deal with particular situation

  • Causes – conditions and contexts that engender

  • Consequences – of and for what …

Adapted from Glaser, 1973 & Strauss & Corbin, 1998


Open coding to strauss corbin s axial coding paradigm

Open Coding to Strauss & Corbin’s Axial Coding Paradigm

Open Coding Categories

Axial Coding Paradigm

Context

Category

Category

Core

Category

or

Phenomenon

Causal

Conditions

Category

Strategies

Consequences

Category

One open coding

category as core

phenomenon

Intervening

Conditions

Category

After Creswell 2e


Key terms

Key Terms

  • Axial coding- Intense analysis focused on one category at a time that treats the category as an ‘axis’ around which further coding and category building is done.

  • Categorizing – an analytic conceptualization

  • Coding – process of naming what data is about

  • Coding families or coding paradigm – a fund of abstract theoretical terms to aid thinking about categories and their relations to each other

  • In-vivo or substantive coding – captures substantive aspects of research setting, often in research participants’ own terms

  • Theoretical sampling – Ongoing sampling specifically for the purpose of developing the theory

  • Theoretical saturation – the point at which gathering data yields no new properties nor any new theoretical insights


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