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Solar Power. It’s coming of age. CSP (Concentrated Solar Power). There are two types: Parabolic Troughs and “Power Towers”. Parabolic Troughs. Linear parabolic mirrors focusing light on a tube Very efficient (60%) utilize salt heated to 1000 degrees Insulated storage for salt

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Solar power

Solar Power

It’s coming of age


Csp concentrated solar power

CSP (Concentrated Solar Power)

There are two types:

Parabolic Troughs and

“Power Towers”


Parabolic troughs

Parabolic Troughs

  • Linear parabolic mirrors focusing light on a tube

    • Very efficient (60%) utilize salt heated to 1000 degrees

    • Insulated storage for salt

    • Then boil water, steam turns turbine, turbine turns generator. Voila! 24 hour solar electricity

      also

    • Most have a natural gas boiler integrated into loop, so plant has full production 24 hours/day


Solar power

ParabolicTrough


Another way to view a parabolic trough

Another way to view a parabolic trough


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Solar Trough “farms” in the US


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“Solar One” Parabolic Trough in Nevada

64 MW; 400 acres; (15,000 homes)


Nevada solar one schematic diagram

Nevada Solar One Schematic Diagram


Abengoa solar troughs gila bend az

Abengoa Solar Troughs Gila Bend AZ

280 MW CSP, the largest in the world (70,000 homes supplied—covers 1900 acres), and a second 280 MW plant under construction near Barstow, CA (54,000 homes). On line 2014.


Solar power

Greentech Mediafor the latest in . . .well, greentechand from National Renewable Energy Lab—Thermal StorageAnd the California ISO website shows demand and renewable output.


Solar one power tower in barstow california

Solar One “Power Tower” in Barstow California

The original solar power tower located in Barstow, California, and completed in 1981. The Solar One had a design capacity of 10,000 peak kilowatts, and was composed of a receiver located on the top of a tower surrounded by a field of reflectors. The concentrated sunlight created steam to drive a steam turbine and electric generator located on the ground.


Ps 10 power tower in spain

PS-10 Power Tower in Spain

  • Mirrors focus sunlight onto a small area at top of 300 foot tall tower.

    • Utilize liquid sodium as a fluid to collect and transport heat to boil water, steam turns turbine, turbine turns generator.

    • Power 65,000 homes

      Integral is Sevilla PV, an integrated photovoltaic array that will power 1800 homes


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The PS 10, 11MW Heliostat Tower in Spain”


Hallelujah

Hallelujah!


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Ivanpah Power Tower—eastern California. First circle is nearing completion. 4000 acres. Towers 500 feet tall. 170,000 heliostats (mirrors)390 MW Equals 140,000 + homes


50 million to relocate endangered desert tortoises there are desert ecosystems no free lunches

$50 million to relocate endangered desert tortoises. There are desert ecosystems--no free lunches


But let s not forget photovoltaic sunlight directly into electricity

But . . . Let’s not forget Photovoltaic—(Sunlight directly into electricity)

  • Western PV panel makers driven out of business by Chinese

  • But, cheap panels make installation cheaper

  • Installation companies go crazy

  • Big investors see good opportunities

  • Solar City stock rises 200% in 2013

    • Solar City model. Install homeowner PV systems for free, then take a portion of output to pay for systems.

      PV still less than 1% of US power output, but increased 76% in 2012 bypassing wind for first time.


Solnova pv spain in foreground 150 mw background ps 10 ps 20 power towers

Solnova PV (Spain) in foreground=150 MWbackground PS-10 & PS-20 Power Towers


Agua caliente solar project mojave desert california 290mw

Agua Caliente Solar Project-Mojave Desert California. 290MW


Geothermal energy

Geothermal Energy

  • Most common utilizes very hot water or steam. “The Geysers” in California.

  • About 30 square miles active site.

  • About 1000 MW continual output.


Dry steam and flash steam requires very hot water steam the geysers model

Dry Steam and Flash SteamRequires very hot water/steam (The Geysers Model)


Enhanced geothermal systems got hot rocks

Enhanced Geothermal Systems:Got Hot Rocks?

  • AltaRock Energy Inc. at Newberry Volcano near Bend.

  • Drill one hole into hot (600 degrees F) dry rock

  • Fracture rock by injecting cold water

  • Drill more holes about 1500 feet away

  • Pump water down original hole and out secondary holes. Convert to steam and use flash (direct) or heat exchanger/binary systems to drive steam turbine and generate electricity.

  • Successful test January 2013.


Enhanced geothermal system utilizing hot dry bedrock

Enhanced Geothermal SystemUtilizing Hot, Dry Bedrock


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Binary SystemUtilizes a secondary closed loop of low boiling point substance to drive the turbine (Probable EGS model—low water consumption.


U s geothermal neal hot springs harney county binary system

U.S. GeothermalNeal Hot Springs—Harney CountyBinary System

  • Utilizes hot water to boil secondary fluid in a heat exchanger.

  • 23 MW Energy (perhaps enough for 26,000 homes)

  • $136 million cost


Ground water source heat pump home heating and cooling

Ground/Water Source Heat Pump Home Heating and Cooling


Benefits

Benefits

  • 50% - 70% more efficient than fossil fuel systems

  • 25% - 50% less operating cost


Drawbacks

Drawbacks

  • Costs “Several Times” more than other heating/cooling systems

  • Not many installers or repair/adjustment companies yet


Ocean thermal energy conversion otec

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

  • As Near as I can tell there are no operating systems utilizing the temperature differences in the ocean. In theory and in demos it works, but the costs are so high that nobody has yet invested in a commercial scale site.


In theory it is simple in practice it is wildly expensive

In theory it is simple; in practice it is wildly expensive


Water turbines like wind turbines but tiny in comparison

Water Turbines (like wind turbines but tiny in comparison)

  • Water is 784 times more dense than air = 784 times more energy per unit area of moving water.

  • Dependable—tide goes in and out on a regular basis. Rivers flow at a dependable rate

  • Widespread possibilities.

  • In reality, still in test mode—production costs still very speculative.


Tidal turbine

Tidal Turbine


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Marine Current TurbineWorld’s First Commercial Scale Tidal Turbine (Strangford Lough, N. Ireland)1.2 MW capability (1000 homes)


Alstom tidal turbine orkney scotland 1 mw in tests 2013

Alstom Tidal Turbine—Orkney Scotland1 MW in tests (2013)


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Christian Science Monitor articicle “Tidal turbines: New sparks of hope for green energy from beneath the waves”


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Ocean Renewable Power CompanyThis thing sits on the bottom of a river or bay. It’s a demo and produces 150 kw of electricity as tide goes in and out.


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Tidal Barrage SystemAdvantage is that this one can function as a “battery” saving impounded water to generate electricity later


La rance tidal barrage in france built 1966 240mw plant 26 efficient 62 mw output

La Rance Tidal Barrage in France-Built 1966240MW plant 26% efficient = 62 MW output


Sihwa tidal barrage korea 2011 256 kw so a bit bigger than la rance

Sihwa Tidal Barrage, Korea, 2011256 KW, so a bit bigger than La Rance


Above the surface

Above the Surface

  • Lots of Experimenting, no commercial examples yet—at least none that I know of, but here are some of the ideas.


Ocean power technology pb150 powerbuoy exists potential 150 kw output 36 54 kw

Ocean Power Technology; PB150 Powerbuoy Exists. Potential =150 KW; output 36%= 54 KW

.


Lots of ideas

Lots of Ideas


Floats ride the waves moving piston up and down inside a magnet to make electricity

Floats ride the waves moving piston up and down inside a magnet to make electricity


Columbia power stingray osu developed makes no sense to me

Columbia Power “Stingray”OSU developed—makes no sense to me!


Pelamis wave energy converter or loch ness monster 750 kw per monster no commercial farms yet

Pelamis Wave Energy ConverterOR Loch Ness Monster!750 KW per monster. No commercial “farms” yet


Utilizing flowing air to turn turbine

Utilizing flowing air to turn turbine


Enernet or cleanweb or soft grid

“Enernet” or “Cleanweb” or “Soft Grid”

  • Definition: Internet-enabled efficiency

    • A. Digital Lumens Company utilizes LED lights; motion sensors; ambient light sensors; data; internet technologies. Reduce energy consumption by 90% or more.


Enernet or cleanweb or soft grid1

“Enernet” or “Cleanweb” or “Soft Grid”

  • Definition: Internet-enabled efficiency

    • A. Digital Lumens Company utilizes LED lights; motion sensors; ambient light sensors; data; internet technologies. Reduce energy consumption by 90% or more.

    • B. Opower Company provides digital consumption alerts via smart phones, iPad apps, smart thermostats to make consumers aware of their energy use but also their neighbor’s use (anonymously). 85 unilities, 27 countries, 18 million homes.


Enernet or cleanweb or soft grid2

“Enernet” or “Cleanweb” or “Soft Grid”

  • Definition: Internet-enabled efficiency

    • A. Digital Lumens Company utilizes LED lights; motion sensors; ambient light sensors; data; internet technologies. Reduce energy consumption by 90% or more.

    • B. Opower Company provides digital consumption alerts via smart phones, iPad apps, smart thermostats to make consumers aware of their energy use but also their neighbor’s use (anonymously). 85 unilities, 27 countries, 18 million homes.

    • C. EnerNOC Company works with 14,000 customers in five states. When a utility nears capacity, contacts customers, who then reduce consumption for a fee. Can curtail 30-35%


Enernet or cleanweb or soft grid3

“Enernet” or “Cleanweb” or “Soft Grid”

  • Definition: Internet-enabled efficiency

    • C. EnerNOC Company works with 14,000 customers in five states. When a utility nears capacity, contacts customers, who then reduce consumption for a fee. Can curtail 30-35%

    • D. Nest Labs Company sells thermostats that “learn” a house energy needs, and begins to set itself. “At its core it is a smart phone on your wall.” It is internet connected, so can be controlled remotely. It also allows devices in home to communicate with each other via internet—like CO2 detector “talking” with furnace.


Google

Google!!!!!

  • And Google is buying ‘em all. It is a great data collection resource, then that data can be used for . . . . .


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