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Agroterrorism/Bioterrorism: Potential Occurrences and Emergency Management of Foreign and Emerging Animal Diseases. Floron C. Faries, Jr., DVM, MS Professor and Extension Program Leader for Veterinary Medicine Texas Cooperative Extension Texas A&M University System.

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Floron C. Faries, Jr., DVM, MS Professor and Extension Program Leader for Veterinary Medicine

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Floron c faries jr dvm ms professor and extension program leader for veterinary medicine

Agroterrorism/Bioterrorism:Potential Occurrences and Emergency Management of Foreign and Emerging Animal Diseases

Floron C. Faries, Jr., DVM, MS

Professor and Extension Program Leader

for Veterinary Medicine

Texas Cooperative Extension

Texas A&M University System


Us threatened by potential occurrences of feads

US Threatened by Potential Occurrences of FEADs

  • Foreign animal diseases

    • Not currently present in US

    • Accidental and intentional risks for entry

      • Travelers

      • Meat products

      • Garbage

      • Bioterrorists


Floron c faries jr dvm ms professor and extension program leader for veterinary medicine

Emerging animal diseases

A new disease or a new form of an old endemic disease

Natural, accidental and intentional risks of emergence

Zoonotic diseases

Diseases shared by animals and people

Various FEADs


Types of occurrences of feads

Types of Occurrences of FEADs

  • Natural

  • Accidental

  • Intentional (Bioterrorist Act)


Devastating impacts of animal disease outbreaks

Devastating Impacts of Animal Disease Outbreaks

  • Economic impacts

  • Sociologic impacts

  • Emotional impacts

  • Political impacts


Foot and mouth disease

Foot and Mouth Disease

  • Not in U.S.

    • A reportable disease

  • Viral disease

    • Domestic and wild cloven-hoofed livestock

    • Blisters and sores in mouth and on feet

  • TAHC ban

    • Meat garbage feeding to swine


Bovine spongiform encephalopathy bse mad cow disease

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)Mad Cow Disease

  • Not in U.S.

    • A reportable disease

  • Prion disease

    • Cattle

    • People (vCJD) – zoonotic disease

  • Brain disease in cattle – rabies symptoms


Floron c faries jr dvm ms professor and extension program leader for veterinary medicine

  • Not contagious

  • Reduced risks of entry and spread

  • USDA bans

    • Feed bans

    • Slaughter bans

    • Import bans


Cervid spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease cwd

Cervid Spongiform EncephalopathyChronic Wasting Disease (CWD)

  • In U.S.

    • A reportable disease

    • Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, S. Dakota, Utah, New Mexico, Wisconsin, Illinois, New York, W. Virginia, Montana, Oklahoma, Kansas


Floron c faries jr dvm ms professor and extension program leader for veterinary medicine

  • Prion disease?

    • Deer and elk

  • Brain disease – rabies symptoms

  • Chronic emaciation disease

  • Restricted importation into States

  • Voluntary CWD Monitoring Program

  • Hunter-Killed Testing Program


Deer with cwd

Deer with CWD


Elk with cwd

Elk with CWD


Anthrax

Anthrax

  • In U.S.

    • A reportable disease

  • Bacterial disease

    • Domestic and wild livestock

    • People – zoonotic disease

  • Endemic Southwest Texas

    • IH-10 X IH-35 Triangle


West nile encephalitis

West Nile Encephalitis

  • In US

    • A reportable disease

  • Viral bird disease – >100 species

    • Blue jays, crows, hawks

    • Encephalitis death


Floron c faries jr dvm ms professor and extension program leader for veterinary medicine

  • Transmission

    • Virus in bird blood

    • Mosquito (>75 species) bite bird

    • Mosquito bite mammal – virus not in blood (dead end)

      • Horse – rabies symptoms

      • People – zoonotic disease


Bovine tuberculosis

Bovine Tuberculosis

  • In US

    • A reportable disease

  • Bacterial disease

    • Cattle

  • Chronic emaciation, respiratory distress

    • Tumor abscesses of lungs and lymph nodes


Bovine paratuberculosis johne s disease

Bovine ParatuberculosisJohne’s Disease

  • In US

    • Not a reportable disease

  • Bacterial disease

    • Cattle

  • Chronic emaciation

    • Maldigestive enteritis – diarrhea


Avian influenza avian flu bird flu

Avian InfluenzaAvian Flu Bird Flu

  • Viral disease

    • Migratory waterfowl

    • Domestic poultry

    • Virus in intestines

    • Virus shed in feces

  • A reportable disease


Floron c faries jr dvm ms professor and extension program leader for veterinary medicine

  • Two classifications – disease symptoms

    • Low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI)

      • Little risk to poultry industry

      • In US

      • Endemic disease

      • Most common class

    • High-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)

      • Serious damage to poultry industry

      • Not in US

      • Epidemic disease

      • Zoonotic disease (rare)


First line of defense in emergency management of feads

First Line of Defense in Emergency Management of FEADs

  • Education of first defenders is key

    • Animal owners

    • County Extension agents

    • Private veterinarians


Emergency management of feads

Emergency Management of FEADs

  • Biosecurity is key

  • Early detection is key

    • Unusual signs

  • Rapid reporting is key

  • Rapid response is key

  • Prompt quarantine is key


Floron c faries jr dvm ms professor and extension program leader for veterinary medicine

Quick diagnosis is key

Disease surveillance is key

Regulatory agencies and animal industries working together is key


Biosecurity measures

Biosecurity Measures

  • Wash hands

  • Wash disinfect boots

  • Wash disinfect trailer

  • Wash disinfect tires

  • Wash disinfect borrowed equipment

  • Proper garbage disposal


Floron c faries jr dvm ms professor and extension program leader for veterinary medicine

Lock gates

Stranger alert

International visitor – >48 hours wait

Purchased livestock – >2 weeks isolation, tests

Routine observations


State emergency management

State Emergency Management

  • Texas State Emergency Management Plan

    • Annex O

      • Agriculture Production and Companion Animals

    • Appendix 3

      • Foreign and Emerging Animal Diseases (FEAD) Response Plan

    • State jurisdiction

      • Texas Animal Health Commission


Floron c faries jr dvm ms professor and extension program leader for veterinary medicine

Five state FEAD committees assess mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery issues

Impact assessment committee

Security and containment committee

Environmental committee

Public information committee

Community impact committee


Floron c faries jr dvm ms professor and extension program leader for veterinary medicine

Identified incident command system

Incident command post(s)

Incident commanders – TAHC and DPS


Floron c faries jr dvm ms professor and extension program leader for veterinary medicine

First Assessment and Sampling Team (FAST)

Joint Information Center (JIC)

Texas Emergency Response Team (TERT)

To support field deployed ICP(s)


Floron c faries jr dvm ms professor and extension program leader for veterinary medicine

Quarantine animals

Several mile radius containment zone

Months to years

Depopulate animals

Surveillance of animals

Control or eradicate options


Local emergency management

Texas Local Emergency Management Plan

Annex N

Direction and Control

Appendix 4

Animal Issues Plan

Local jurisdiction

County Judge or City Mayor

Local Emergency Coordinator (EMC)

Local Emergency Management


Floron c faries jr dvm ms professor and extension program leader for veterinary medicine

  • Animal disease disasters

    • TAHC is lead agency (top down authority)

    • TAHC activates Texas FEAD Response Plan

    • TAHC activates Local EM Plan


Available resources

Available Resources

  • http://extensionvetmed.tamu.edu

  • http://tcebookstore.tamu.org

  • http://fazd.tamu.edu

  • http://www.tahc.state.tx.us

  • http://www.tdh.state.tx.us/zoonosis

  • http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/pubs/factsheets.html

  • http://www.cdc.gov


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