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Firearms and Shooting Sports. MN. Department of Natural Resources : Sponsor firearm safety education with the purpose of training responsible, safe and knowledgeable hunters . Manage wildlife, enforce hunting laws. Sport Shooting Injury Stats. Firearm Safety.

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Firearms and Shooting Sports

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Firearms and Shooting Sports

MN. Department of Natural Resources:

  • Sponsor firearm safety education with the purpose of training responsible, safe and knowledgeable hunters.

  • Manage wildlife, enforce hunting laws.

Sport Shooting Injury Stats

Firearm Safety

Main outcome of Firearm Safety is to prevent firearm and hunting accidents and to ensure the future of hunting and shooting sports through the compliances with laws, regulations and ethics. (Accident data!)

Major Funding for Firearm Safety

  • Pittman – Robertson Act of 1937. 11% tax on sporting goods to help protect habitat, wildlife, water and to help fund hunter ed. Programs (collect $3.5 million/day)

  • Others: Duck Unlimited, Pheasant Forever, Sportsman club, IHEA,

  • NRA =National Rifle Association, You.

American Sportsmen donate time and money to ensure habitat is available for wildlife.

TIP: “Turn in Poachers” Cash rewards for tips leading to an arrest of bad guys. (800) 652 - 9093.

Guns in America

Guns played a big role in United States of America:


Civil war

  • Mountain men

  • Taming the “Wild West”

Even Today!

  • Recreational uses today are very popular - Sport shooting and hunting.

  • Defense: Conceal and CarryLaw

Violent acts and media cause much debate about guns

History of Guns

First powder: Chinese (fireworks)Black powder: Burn rate very high (aka highly explosive)Smokeless powder - burn rates vary

Muzzle loaders

4 Locks: The mechanism that discharges a firearm)

1. Matchlock….…

2. Wheelock………..……………….

3. Flintlock…...

4. Percussion cap………..………….

Breech loaders

  • Cartridge guns came about after the invention of the percussion cap.


  • Rifles shoot single projectiles called: “balls” (muzzleloaders) or “bullets”

  • Rifles measured in calibers the bore diameter is in one thousands of an inch or measured in millimeters.

  • Examples: 30 - 30, 30 - 06, 308, 243, 6mm, 9mm


  • The bullet is spiraled through the barrel due to “rifling” (lands and grooves cut into the inside of the barrel.)

Rifle bullets have very high velocity, good for long range accuracy.(Know your target and beyond!!!)

Shotgun Anatomy

Shotgun Anatomy




Shotgun Anatomy



Shotgun Anatomy


Trigger Guard

Shotgun Anatomy





  • John Browning invented the slide or pump *(1880) remains one of the most popular of all shotgun actions.

  • Other actions include: Hinge, Single and double barrel, Lever, BoltInteractive Animation:


  • Gauge: is determined by the number of lead balls equal to the diameter of the bore to weigh one pound. The smaller the gauge the larger the number.

  • Gauges of shotguns:

  • 410 gauge (only exception)

    this one measured in caliber

  • 28 gauge

  • 20 gauge

  • 16 gauge

  • 12 gauge

  • 10 gauge

  • 8 gauge


Shot pellets vary according to size and composition. Lead shot is heavier than steel shot. Lead shot has an alloy added “antimony” to increase hardness. Harder shot pellets (magnum shot) deform less and stay on course for good patterns.

Patternsdf: The spread of the shot after it leaves the barrel

Chokes: the constriction at the end of the barrel of a shotgun.affects the pattern spread

  • Shotgun quality can effect patterns

  • Pellet size and hardness can affect patterns

  • Powder charge affects velocity thus impacting patterns

-Single pellet energy at any given range is virtually the same regardless of the gauge or choke of the gun-Long barrel length of guns provides a longer sighting plane. Best for longer range shots.


  • Gun dimensions can affect how a gun fits the shooter. Good gun fit is important to accuracy.

  • Proper trigger squeeze technique to assure stable gun on stationary targets

  • Good gun maintenance includes frequent cleaning.

  • Lead deposits and powder residue need to be removed.

  • It is a bad practice for safety reasons to pull the trigger on an empty chamber, damage to the firing pin may also result.

  • Long time storage of firearms takes special requirements to avoid rusting of the gun.

  • Sights: iron sights

  • telescopic - gathers light and magnifies.

Three Basic Rules for Firearm Safety:

1. Treat all guns as if they were loaded.

2. Control your muzzle

3. Be sure of you target and beyond.

* Know all 10 commandments.

Carrying a Firearm

Elbow/Side Carry

Trail Carry

Sling Carry

Two Handed or “Ready” Carry



Cradle Carry

Shooting PositionsProneSittingKneelingStanding

‘Pointing’ vs ‘Aiming’ a gunIn shot gunning you point the barrel at your target. Leaving both eyes open with proper dominant eye gives you better depth of field and ability to see target otherwise hidden by the barrel.


  • “Wing shooting” requires more attention to safety.

  • “Wing Shooting” requires that you lead your target :

  • Reasons: Lock time, human reaction time, shot travel time

Types of leading:

Swing through - start behind/ pull ahead

Sustained lead - stay ahead

Snap shooting –stationary barrel

Safe Zones of Fire

Trapshooting Fundamentals

A Brief History

  • Began as a way to refine proficiency with a shotgun.

  • Targets changed over time:

    • Live birds

    • Glass balls with feathers

    • Potters clay

    • Pitch + Limestone


-16 Yard Singles

-16 Yard Doubles

-5 Shot Stations


-22o Rotation From Center

-Target Leaves House

at 45-55 mph

-Shot Fall Area = 300 yards


Squad Ready?




Puller Ready?




Let’s see a bird!





(Marked with an ‘X’ on score sheet)



(Marked with an ‘O’ on score sheet)


No Target!

(Either a no target is released or target is broken when leaving the trap house)



(After station is complete.)



(Entire round is over)


Gun Barrel: 1” wide = 1ft. at 36 yards

Other Events:


1) First 25 in Outdoor Adventures Class

2) First Girl > 21

Gun Etiquette

  • Alcohol and/or drugs should never be consumed or used when handling firearms.

  • The first thing you do when you pick up any gun, is to check and see if it’s loaded.

  • Before you pick up or accept a gun from someone, make sure you know how it works.

    • If you don’t know or can’t remember, don’t be embarrassed to ask someone to show you.

  • When handing a gun to someone, open the action to make sure it is not loaded.

    • Then with action open, hand the unloaded gun to the person with the muzzle pointing away from them.

Gun Etiquette (Cont.)

  • Handle the guns of others with care and respect. When dealing with other

    people’s guns:

    • Don’t let the slide or action slam forward

    • Don’t let the bolt slam forward in Semi-Automatic Rifles and Shotguns. (unless loading the chamber to shoot)

    • Don’t quickly and forcefully close the bolt on bolt action Rifles, Lever action Rifles and pump action Shotguns and Rifles.

    • Close break action Shotguns, Rifles, and Pistols with care.

Range Safety

  • Uncase and case your gun at the shooting bench, never behind the safety line.

  • Always keep the barrel pointed down range.

  • Always keep the gun on safe until you intend to shoot.

  • Always wear eye and ear protection when shooting.

Range Etiquette

  • Always pick up your spent cases and/or shells when you’re done shooting.

  • Always take down your targets when you're done shooting.

  • Always straighten up your area before you leave.

  • Never eat or drink while shooting.

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