Class 13:  Emotions and Cognition III
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 32

Class 13: Emotions and Cognition III PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 76 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Class 13: Emotions and Cognition III. Man, in the instability of his emotions resembles deplorably a monkey. Joseph Conrad. Brain in Gut (aka Neurogastroenterology). More neurons than spinal cord Fibers non-mylinated—like in big brain Bathed in same neurochemicals as big brain

Download Presentation

Class 13: Emotions and Cognition III

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

Class 13: Emotions and Cognition III

Man, in the instability of his emotions resembles deplorably a monkey.

Joseph Conrad


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

Brain in Gut

(aka Neurogastroenterology)

  • More neurons than spinal cord

  • Fibers non-mylinated—like in big brain

  • Bathed in same neurochemicals as big brain

  • Suffers damage to big-brain diseases

    5. Responsive to psychotropic drugs


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

Are “Gut Feelings” Real?

  • Big brain and gut brain communicate

  • Stressful event #1: Big brain stores threat in “emotion memory”

  • Stressful event #2: Limbic system responds, sends signal to gut. Gut may get signal before cortex.

    4. Result—gut feeling


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

De Becker: Gift of Fear

Kelly's travail:

What signal does she FAIL to attend to? Why?

What signal does she finally attend to? Why?

How does Kelly's experience relate to emotion

arousal? (hint—Mandler theory of emotions)

Why do people discard danger signals?

Dilemma: external cues do not justify feeling.

Social desirability, politeness norms

Dependence on experts

What might determine who listens to own emotions?

De Becker meets St. Exupery:

a. How do emotions and cognition interact?

b. Which informs which? In what order?

c. Is unc. smart or dumb?


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

Challenging DeBecker

Is his approach a version of "Victim Blaming"?

Aren't there times when it's better to follow social rules than own "gut reaction"?

Do emotions = "intuition"?

What if you have multiple emotions, e.g., Anger + Fear?


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

Mood Effects and Person Perception:

Forgas & Bower


Scuba diver study

Scuba Diver Study


State dependent memory

State Dependent Memory

Memory associated with an emotional state will be easier to

retrieve when you are in that same emotional state.

Example: Learn FACT A when happy, easier to remember FACT A when happy.

Memory associated with an emotional state will be harder to

retrieve when you are in an opposed emotional state.

Example: Learn FACT A when happy, harder to remember FACT A when sad.


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

Number of Attributes Recalled About Target

as a Function of Attribute Valence (Pos vs. Neg) and Participant Mood (Sad vs. Happy)

Subjects Mood

Details Recalled


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

Number of Attribute Items Correctly Recognized

as a Function of Attribute Valence (Pos vs. Neg) and Participant Mood (Sad vs. Happy)

Subjects Mood

Details Recalled


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

MOOD CONGUENT LEARNING

REALTOR

BURGLER

Emotional states are similarly goal-related.

Emotion at Time A affects how situation is searched and learned at Time A

Emotion (mood) congruent learning relates to what Lewinian construct?

Life space.


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

Time Spent Reading Descriptive Sentences

as a Function of Attribute Valence (Pos vs. Neg) and Participant Mood (Sad vs. Happy)

Subject's Mood

Attribute Valence


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

Number of Pos and Neg Judgments Made

as a Function of Participant Mood (Sad vs. Happy)

Subject's Mood

Judgments Made of Target


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

Time Taken to Judge Target as Positive or Negative

as a Function of Attribute Valence (Pos vs. Neg) and Participant Mood (Sad vs. Happy)

Subjects Mood

Judgments Made of Target


Mood and visual processing

Mood and Visual Processing

Happy or Sad

MM

MM

MM

MM

MM MM MM

Who sees “M”?

SAD

Who sees “L”?

HAPPY


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

Do Humans Care About Other Humans?

Batson (1990)


Acts of selfless heroism

Acts of Selfless (?) Heroism

The “fifth man” in Air Florida crash

Polish Concentration Camp Guard

Question: What motivates this behavior?


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

Why Do People Help Others?

Altruistic explanation -- Caring

Egoistic explanations

Negative state relief: Stop personal discomfort

Avoid social/self punishments: Shame, guilt

Seek social/self rewards: Honor, pride


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

A “Selfishness Bias” in Psychology?

Freud: Behavior based on pleasure principle

Skinner:Behavior based on pleasure principle

Modern Self Theorists in Social Psychology:

1. Totalitarian ego: false uniqueness, false

representativeness

2. Self affirmation

3. Self esteem

4. Self monitoring

5. Self efficacy

6. Downward social comparison


The selfish gene theory

The “Selfish Gene” Theory

Fundamental goal of life-forms – pass on genes

Who will pass on genes? Those who survive

Therefore behaviors that promote survival are “adaptive” and are “selected in”

Behaviors that jeopardize survival are maladaptive and are “selected out”

Who is more likely to survive, the selfless helper or the selfish non-helper?


Challenges to selfish gene

Challenges to “Selfish Gene”

Inclusive Fitness:

Share genes with others

Risk taking for others promotes their survival

People more apt to sacrifice for those closest to them

in terms of shared genes

Reciprocal Altruism:

I help you today, you help me tomorrow, and typically

with interest.


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

Prosocial Behavior vs. Altruistic Behavior

1. Prosocial: Helping others, for any reason

2. Altruistic: Helping others because you care

about them.

Note: Altruistic is a type of pro-social

behavior.


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

Emotions Consistent with

Egoistic (Selfish) Behavior

Emotions Consistent with

Altruistic Behavior

EnvyPride

JealousySpite

Greed

Lust

Gluttony

Covetousness

Scheudenfreuden

Empathy


Daniel batson empathy and altruism

Daniel Batson: Empathy and Altruism

Batson conducts classic research on “bystander intervention”, showing how situations can prevent people from helping.

Jerusalem to Jericho study, for example

However, he becomes interested why some people help, others do not, regardless of the situation.

Asks: Are we capable of caring?


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

Empathy vs. Avoiding Shame:

The “Elayne” Study

1. Subs. told: study about learning and shocks

2. Sub. is “observer”, confed. (“Elayne”) is “learner”

3. Sub. learnes Elayne is very similar (high empathy cond)

or very dissimilar to him/her (low empathy cond)

4. Sub. sees Elayne's distress, upset

5. Exptr. calls a break, asks Elayne if OK, “yes, but water

please.” Elayne is clearly distressed.

6. During break, Sub completes mood check-list.

Purpose: ID people high/low on empathy

7. Elayne confides to Expt. childhood trauma w’ shocks.

8. Expt. asks Subs: “willing to switch places w’ Elayne?”

9. Subs. must qualify to help by performing well at test

a. For ½ Subs. “easy test, most can do well”

b. For ½ Subs. “hard test, most can’t do well”


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

“Social Censure” Predictions

“Empathy and Altruism” Predictions

Justification

for not helping

Justification

for not helping

Low Empathy Condition

Low Empathy Condition

High Empathy Condition

High Empathy Condition

Weak Justif.

Helps

Helps

Strong Justif.

No Help

No Help

Weak Justif.

Helps

Helps

Strong Justif.

No Help

Helps

“Social Censure” vs. “Empathy and Altruism” Predictions


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

Rates of Volunteering to Help Distressed “Elaine” as a Function of Felt Empathy and Opportunity to Avoid Social Censure

Batson et al., 1988

Note: Easy test = Low Justification to avoid helping

Hard test = High justification to avoid helping


Class 13 emotions and cognition iii

Effort Made to Qualify to Help “Elaine” as a Function of

Felt Empathy and Opportunity for Face-Saving Out

Batson, et al., 1988

Note: Easy Test = Low justification to avoid trying on test

Hard Test = High justification of avoid trying on test


Solution to selfishness vs altruism debate the shared self

S

Solution to Selfishness vs. Altruism Debate – “The Shared Self”

Problem: Do we ever intentionally act outside of self-interest?

Solution: Reconsider what we mean by “self” and “other”

Batson’s implicit definition – these are distinct entities

O


Solution to selfishness vs altruism contin

S

O

Solution to Selfishness vs. Altruism, Contin.

What do people say when someone they love has died? What phases do they use to express this kind of loss?

“Part of me is missing”, “It’s as if I lost a limb”

What does this suggest about the self/other divide?

In other words, can self/other be represented

as overlapping, rather than separate?

In this case “me” is not limited to my biological self, but to a shared self.

Empathy  Altruism my require this “shared self”


  • Login