The Competition Model Brian MacWhinney- CMU. Elizabeth Bates Csaba Pl é h Mich è le Kail Janet McDonald Antonella Devescovi Klaus-Michael K ö pcke Kerry Kilborn Takehiro Ito Ovid Tzeng Judit Osman-S á gi Jeffrey Sokolov Beverly Wulfeck Vera Kempe Arturo Hernandez Ping Li
Elizabeth Bates Csaba Pléh Michèle Kail
Janet McDonald Antonella Devescovi Klaus-Michael Köpcke
Kerry Kilborn Takehiro Ito Ovid Tzeng
Judit Osman-Sági Jeffrey Sokolov Beverly Wulfeck
Vera Kempe Arturo Hernandez Ping Li
Empirical Results Published in:
MacWhinney, B., & Bates, E. (Eds.) The crosslinguistic study of sentence processing. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
15 articles since then
[p(function)|form] - comprehension
[p(form)|function] - production
The tiger pushes the bear.
The bear the tiger pushes.
Pushes the tiger the bear.
The dogs the eraser push.
The dogs the eraser pushes.
The cat push the dogs.
Il gatto spingono i cani.
Agent: The dog vs. the cat
Patient: The dog vs. the cat
Dog placement: preverbal, postverbal, by-clause
Cat placement: preverbal, postverbal, by-clause
English: The pig loves the farmer
SV > VO > Agreement
German: Das Schwein liebt den Bauer.
Den Bauer liebt das Schwein
Case > Agreement > Animacy>Word Order
Spanish: El cerdo quiere al campesino.
Al campesino le quiere el cerdo.
"Case" > Agreement > Clitic > Animacy > Word Order
*Yas lééchaa’í yi-stin.
snow dog him-frooze.
Lééchaaa’ yas bi-stin
dog snow him-frooze
7-level hierachy of Animacy -- switch reference
F(task T) / F(all tasks)
F(times when cue A is present)
The cat chases the dog.
F(cue A present ^ cue A contrasts)
The cat chases the dogs.
Reliable if always leads to right functional choice
F(cue A present ^ cue A contrasts ^ cue A correct) / F (cue A present^cue A contrasts)
In certain contexts, one cue will be more reliable
F(cue A conflicts with other cue ^ cue A wins) /
F(cue A conflicts with any cue)
P (first noun) =
∏ S i (first) /∏ S i (first) + ∏ S j (second)
Models vary number of parameters and can be additive or multiplicative
MacDonald and MacWhinney (1989)
Just before dawn, Lisa was fishing with Ron in the boat,
and she caught a big trout right away.
and lots of big trout were biting.
McDonald and MacWhinney (1994)
Probes presented at 4 Delay Times: D1 D2 D3 D4
* 100 * pro * 200 * end * Gary amazed Ellen time after time, because he was so talented.N1 V N2 filler , because PRO predicate.Probes: referent Gary non-referent Ellen distractor Frank verb amazed
Joel admires Susan because she is so fabulous.
1. Slowdown in processing of probes at pronoun when there is a contrast.
2. Facilitation from pronoun onwards when first noun advantage agrees with implicit causality.
3. Activation of N2 right at the pronoun for E-S verbs!
4. Standard Competition Model cue summations and competitions, all right when they should occur.
The black dog is going to the market with his owner.
“sibling” in Dutch = brother or sister
glass in English, vidrio or vaso in Spanish
car - “achterbak” or “kofferbak”
tree -“stam” or “boomstronk”
body - “romp”
snout - “slurf”
The boy had fallen from the tree and his dog was hovering over him
prepositions (Ijaz, 1986)
Germans under-emphasize contact and over-emphasize movement for “on”
German “auf” means “up”
German die Frau küßt der ...
They also rigidify on the strongest devices
Providing negative evidence