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Ikkoj ikabV isztasuVs’ku. fo"k ;% ukxfjd ’ kkL =. d{kk & nloh a. izLrqrdÙkkZ %. euh"k iar Vh-th-Vh lk-foKku. lÙkk dh lk> snkjh. dk vFkZ lÙkk dk c¡Vokjk] lÙkk ds VqdM+s djuk¾ ns'k dks detksj djukA.

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Ikkoj ikabV isztasuVs’ku

fo"k;%ukxfjd ’kkL=

d{kk & nloha

izLrqrdÙkkZ %

euh"k iar

Vh-th-Vh lk-foKku


lÙkk dh lk>snkjh

dk vFkZ lÙkk dk c¡Vokjk] lÙkk ds VqdM+s djuk¾

ns'k dks detksj djukA

lÙkk dh lk>snkjhlsgekjkrkRi;Z’kklu dh ’kfDr;ksa ds O;ofLFkrfoHkktulsgksrkgS A


yksdra= ’kklu dk og :IkgSftlesa ’kkldks dk p;uturk )kjkfd;k tkrk gSA

ÁR;sdyksdrkaf=d O;oLFkkesa ’[email protected] rkdrfdlh ,d vax rd lhferughagksrhAcfYdfo/kkf;dk] dk;Zikfydk vkSj U;k;ikfydk ds chp le>nkjh ds lkFkfodsafærdjnhtkrhgSA


,Fkuhd ;k tkrh;

,slslkekftdyksxftudh ’kkjhfjdcukoV vkSj laLÑfr ,d lekugksrhgS ,slslewg ds lnL; fdlh ,d /keZ ;k ,d jk"Vªh;rk ds gksA ;g t:jh ughaA


cgqla[;dokn %

ogekU;rktksleqnk; dks cgqla[;d gksus ds dkj.keupkgs <ax ls ns'kdk 'kklupykus dh NwVnsrhgS vkSj bldsfy, ogvYila[;dksa dh t:jr @ bPNkvksadh vogsyuk dks lghdjkjnsrh gSA


x`g;q}

fdlh ns’k @eqYdesa

ljdkjfojks/khlewgtcfgald yM+kbZ dk lgkjkysrkgSrks ;q} dh ogfLFkfr

x`g;q} dgykrhgSaA


vkb,] gecsfYt;e vkSj Jhyadk dh nksdFkkvksa dks ns[krsgSaA;s nksuksa ?kVuk,¡ crkrhgSafdfofHkUuyksdrkaf=d 'kklui}fr;k¡ lÙkk ds c¡Vokjs dh ek¡xlsfdlrjgfuiVrhgSaA


csfYt;e;wjksi dk ,d NksVk&lk ns'k gS] {ks=Qyesagekjsgfj;k.kkjkT; lsHkhNksVkAbldhlhek,¡ uhnjySaM] ;wdzsu vkSj teZuhlsyxrhgSaAbldhvkcknh ,d djksM+ ls FkksM+h vf/kdgS ;kuhgfj;k.kk dh vkcknhlsdjhcvk/khA


N

EUROPE

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F

L


BELGIUM /csfYt;e


blNksVs ls ns'k ds lekt dh tkrh; cukoVcgqrtfVy gSA ns'k dk59%fgLlk ¶ysfe'kbykdsesaajgrkgS o Mp Hkk"kkcksyrk gSA 'ks"k 40%yksxosyksfu;k {ks= esa jgrs gSa vkSj QzsapHkk"kkcksyrsgSaAjkt/kkuhcwzlsYl ds 80%yksxQzsapHkk"kkcksyrsgSa vkSj 20%yksx Mp Hkk"kkA


csfYt;e dsleqnk; vkSj {ks=

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G

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czwlsYl&jkt/kkuh{ks=

osyksuQzsap&Hkk"kh)

¶ysfe'kMp&Hkk"kh

teZu&Hkk"kh



csfYt;e esa vYila[;d QzsapyksxrqyukRed:i ls Mp yksxksalsT;knk le`} vkSj rkdrojjgs gSaA tcdhMp yksxksa dks cgqrckn esa tkdjvkfFkZdfodkl vkSj f'k{kk dk ykHkfeykA


bldspyrs 1950 vkSj 1960 ds n'kdesaQzsap vkSj Mp cksyusokyslewgksa ds chp ruko c<+us yxkAbuds chp Vdjkolclsigys czwlsYl esa fn[kkA


lksfp, fd ,slhfLFkfresaD;k gks ldrk Fkk\ csfYt;eesaMp&Hkk"khyksxcgqla[;k ds cy ij Qzsap vkSj teZuHkk"khyksxksa ij viuhbPNk,¡ FkksildrsFksA


blls mu leqnk;ksa ds chp dh yM+kbZ vkSj c<+ tkrhA laHko Fkk blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsA


Jhyadk blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsA


Jhyadk blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsA,d }hih; ns'k gStksrfeyukMq ds nf{k.kh rVlsdqNfdyksehVj dh nwjh ij fLFkrgSAbldhvkcknhdjhcnksdjksM+ gS ;kuhgfj;k.kk ds cjkcjAnf{k.k ,f'k;k ds vU; ns'kksa dh rjgJhyadk dh vkcknhesaHkhdbZtkrh; lewgksa ds yksxgSaA


Jhyadk blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsAesalkekftdlewgksa dk oxhZdj.k


Jhyadk blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsAesalclsçeq[k lkekftdlewgflagfy;ksadkgSftudhvkcknhdqytula[;k dh 74 QhlnhgSA

fQjrfeyksadkuacjvkrkgSftudhvkcknhdqytula[;k esa 18 QhlnhgSA

eqlyekuyksxksa dk fgLlk 07 QhlnhgStks nksuksa Hkk"kk,¡ cksyrsgSaA


rfeyksa blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsAesaHkhnkslewggSaAJhyadkbZewydsrfey 13 QhlnhvkSjfganqLrkuhrfey 05 Qhlnh A

tksvkSifuosf'kd 'kkludkyesackxkuksaesadkedjus ds fy, Hkkjrlsyk, x, yksxksaesagSaA


Jhyadk ds tkrh; l blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsAeqnk;

flagyh

JhyadkbZrfey

Hkkjroa'khrfey

eqlyeku


rfey blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsAeq[; :i lsmÙkj o iwohZçkarksaesavkckngSaAvf/kdrjflagyh&Hkk"khyksxckS} gSatcfdrfey&Hkk"khyksxksaesadqNfganwgSa o dqNeqlyekuA


lksfp blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsA, fd ,slhfLFkfresaD;kgksldrkFkk\

Jhyadkesaflagyhvkcknh dk cgqerT;knk Fkk vkSj osyksxeqYdesaviuheuekuhpykldrsFksA


Jhyadk blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsAesacgqla[;dokn

lu~ 1948 esaJhyadk Lora= jk"Vª cukArksflagyhusrkvksa us viuhcgqla[;k ds cy ij 'kkluijçHkqRotek;k A

1956 esa ,d dkuwu }kjkrfeydksnjfdukjdjdsflagyhdks ,dek= jktHkk"kk ?kksf"krdjfn;kx;kA

fo'ofo|ky;ksavkSjljdkjhukSdfj;ksaesaflagfy;ksadksçkFkfedrknhAu, lafo/kkuesaljdkj us ckS}erdkslaj{k.kvkSj c<+koknsxhA


, blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsAd&,ddjdsvk, buljdkjhQSlyksa us JhyadkbZrfeyksa dh ukjkTkxhvkSj 'kkludsfy, muesacsxkukiu c<+k;kA

mUgsayxkfdckS} /kekZoyachflagfy;ksadsusr`RoikfVZ;k¡ mudhHkk"kkvkSjlaLÑfrdksysdjvlaosnu'khygSaA

mUgsayxkfdlafo/kku

vkSjljdkj dh uhfr;k¡ mUgsalekujktuhfrdvf/kdkjksalsoafprdjjghgSaAukSdfj;ksa o vU; dkeksaesamudslkFkHksnHkkogksjgkgSA


1980ds blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsAn'kd rd mÙkj&iwohZJhyadkesa Lora= rfeybZye ¼ljdkj½ cukus dh ek¡xdksysdjvusdjktuhfrdlaxBucusA

Jhyadkesanksleqnk;ksadschpikjLifjdvfo'okl us cM+sVdjkodk :iysfy;kA o ;g Vdjkox`g;} esa ifj.kr gqvkA

ifj.kkeLo:inksuksai{k dsgTkkjksayksxekjstkpqdsgSaAvusdifjokjHkkxdj 'kj.kkFkhZ cu x, gSaAvkSjdbZyksxksa dh jksth&jksVhpkSiVgksxbZgSA


JhyadkbZ blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsArfeyksadslkFk 'kkludkcsxkukiu


csfYt;e blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsA dh le>nkjh

csfYt;e ds usrkvksa us {ks=h; varjksa o lkaLÑfrdfofo/krk dks Lohdkjfd;kA 1970ls1993 ds chp viuslafo/kkuesapkjla'kks/kufd, fd ns'k esajgusokysfdlhHkhvkneh dks csxkusiu dk vglkl u gks vkSj lHkhfey&tqydjjgldsA


  • csfYt;e blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsA ds lafo/kkuesablckr dk Li"Vçko/kkugSfddsaæljdkjesa Mp vkSj QzsapHkk"kheaf=;ksa dh la[;k lekujgsxhA

  • fo'ks"kdkuwu nksuksa Hkk"kk;hlewg ds lkalnksa ds cgqerlsghikfjrgksxkA

  • dsaæljdkj dh vusd 'kfDr;k¡ ns'k ds nksuksa bykdksa dh {ks=h; ljdkjksa dks lqiqnZdjnhxbZgSaA

  • czwlsYl esavyxljdkjgSftlesa nksuksa leqnk;ksa dk lekuçfrfuf/kRogSA


dsaæh blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsA; vkSj jkT; ljdkjksa ds vykok ;gk¡ ,d rhljsLrj dh ljdkjHkhdkedjrhgS ;kuhlkeqnkf;dljdkjAblLFkkfu; ljdkj dk pquko ,d ghHkk"kkcksyusokysyksxdjrsgSaAblljdkj dks laLÑfr] f'k{kk vkSj Hkk"kktSlselyksa ij QSlysysus dk vf/kdkjgSA


lÙkk blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsA dh lk>snkjhD;ksaTk:jhgS\

  • ;g lkekftdlewgksadschpVdjkodsvans'ksdks de djrkgSA

  • lÙkkdkc¡Vokjkns’kesajktuhfrdfLFkjrkcuk, j[krkgSA

  • jk"Vªh; ,drkdks c<+kokfeyrkgSA

  • lgHkkfxrk o tuHkkxhnkjhdks

  • c<+kokfeyrkgSA


lÙkk blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsA dh lk>snkjhds;qfDrijd o uSfrddkjd

lÙkkdk ;qfDrijd ;k le>nkjh dk rdZykHkdjifj.kkeksa ij TkksjnsrkgStcfduSfrdrdZ lÙkk ds c¡Vokjsdsvan:uhegÙo dks crkrkgSA


lÙkk blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsA dh lk>snkjhds :i

  • yksdra= esaturkghlkjhjktuhfrd 'kfDrdklzksrgSAblesayksxLo&'kklu dh laLFkkvksadsekè;elsviuk 'kklupykrsgSaAvk/qkfudyksdrkaf=d O;oLFkkvksaesalÙkk dh lk>snkjhdsvusd :igksldrsgSA


  • ' blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsAkkludsfofHkUuvax] tSlsfo/kkf;dk] dk;ZikfydkvkSjU;k;ikfydkdschplÙkkdkc¡VokjkjgrkgSAblsgelÙkkdk {kSfrtforj.kdgrsgSAdksbZHkh ,d vaxlÙkkdkvlhfermi;ksxughadjrkA o gjvaxnwljsijvadq'k j[krkgSAblO;oLFkkdks ^ fu;a=.k vkSjlarqyu dh O;oLFkk *HkhdgrsgSaA


  • ljdkj blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsAdschpHkhfofHkUuLrjksaijlÙkkdkc¡VokjkgksldrkgS % tSls] iwjsns'kdsfy, ,d lkekU; ljdkjgksvkSjçkarLrjijvyxljdkjjgsAlafo/kkuesabldkLi"VmYys[k gSfddsaævkSjjkT; ljdkjksadschplÙkkdkc¡aVokjkdSlsgksAmPpvkSjfuEuLrj dh ljdkjksadschplÙkkds ,slsc¡VokjsdksmèokZ/kjforj.kdgktkrkgSA


  • lÙkk blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsAdkc¡VokjkfofHkUulkekftdlewgksa] elyu] Hkk"kk;hvkSj /kkfeZdlewgksadschpHkhgksldrkgSAcsfYt;eesa ^lkeqnkf;dljdkj* blO;oLFkkdk ,d vPNkmnkgj.kgSA


  • lÙkk blls ns'k dk c¡Vokjk gks tkrk vkSj czwlsYl ij nksuksa i{k viuk nkok BksdrsAdsc¡Vokjsdk ,d :igefofHkUuçdkjdsncko&lewgvkSjvkanksyuksa }kjk 'kkludksçHkkforvkSjfu;af=r djusdsrjhdsesaHkh y{; djldrsgSaAyksdra= esayksxksadslkeuslÙkkdsnkosnkjksadschppqukodkfodYiTk:jjgukpkfg,A


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