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Ionic Equations. What’s really swimming around. And what’s not swimming around. Electrolytes: cmpds whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity. (refer to solubility rules). Electrolytic solutions must contain ions. Nonelectrolytes: cmpds whose solutions don’t conduct

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Ionic Equations....

What’s really swimming around.

And what’s not swimming around.


Electrolytes: cmpds whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity. (refer to solubility rules). Electrolytic solutions must contain ions.

Nonelectrolytes: cmpds whose solutions don’t conduct

electricity. No ions are present in solution.

For a RXN to occur, at least one product must a non-electrolyte.

An insoluble solid (s) or a molecular substance such as a gas (g), or liquid (l) [as in H2O(l)]

If everything remains aqueous (aq), no reaction occurs. All particles are ions and are spectators.


Double replacement reactions

Double Replacement Reactions electricity.

Or to impress your friends.

Also called:

Metathesis reactions


KI(aq) + Pb(NO electricity. 3)2(aq)  KNO3(aq) + PbI2(s)


Equation: electricity.

2KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq)2KNO3(aq) + PbI2(s)

Overall Ionic Equation:

Beaker B

2K++ 2NO3-

Beaker C

Beaker A

2K+ + 2I-

+ Pb2+ + 2NO3-

+ PbI2(s)


Equation: electricity.

2KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq)2KNO3(aq) + PbI2(s)

Overall Ionic Equation:

2K++ 2NO3-

2K+ + 2I-

+ Pb2+ + 2NO3-

+ PbI2(s)

Net Ionic Equation: (Cross out the spectator ions)

+ 2I-

Pb2+

PbI2(s)

These are the ions that form the product



Let’s Take a Quiz!! electricity.

Which one of the following substances is insoluble in water?

a) RbOH

b) KSCN

c) BaCO3

d) LiBr

e) Na3PO4

What do these cmpds look like when they dissolve?


What do these cmpds look like when they dissolve? electricity.

Which one of the following substances is insoluble in water?

a) RbOH

b) KSCN

c) BaCO3

d) LiBr

e) Na3PO4

H2O


Which one of the following is an insoluble base? electricity.

a) RbOH

b) Ba(OH)2

c) Al(OH)3

d) LiOH

e) KOH


Which one of the following salts is insoluble in water? electricity.

a) FeCl3

b) Al2(SO4)3

c) Cr(NO3)3

d) (NH4)2CO3

e) AgCl


Which one of the following salts is insoluble in water? electricity.

a) MgSO4

b) KNO3

c) AgBr

d) FeCl3

e) NaBr


What is the electricity. total ionic equation for the following formula unit equation?

BaCl2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) --> BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl(aq)

[Ba2+(aq)+2Cl-(aq)] + [2Na+(aq)+SO42-(aq)] 

BaSO4(s) + 2Na+(aq)+2Cl-(aq)

Let’s find the net ionic equation:

(Cross out all the Spectator ions.)

Net ionic equation:

Ba2+ + SO42- BaSO4(s)


Common Strong Acids and Bases: electricity.

Strong acids are completely separated into their ions in water.

Strong bases are strong electrolyes also. (high solubility)

Strong Acids:

Chloric, HClO3

Hydrobromic, HBr

Hydrochloric, HCl

Hydroiodic, HI

Nitric, HNO3

Sulfuric, H2SO4

Perchloric HClO4

Strong Bases:

Group 1A metal hydroxides

(LiOH, NaOH, KOH,

RbOH, CsOH)

Heavy Group 2A metal hydroxides

[Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, and

Ba(OH)2]


What is a strong Acid? electricity.

An Acid that is 100% ionized in water.

Strong Acids:

100% ionized (completely dissociated) in water.

HCl + H2O  H3O+ + Cl-

often written as:

HCl  H+ + Cl-


What is a strong Base? electricity.

A base that is completely dissociated in water (highly soluble).

NaOH(s)  Na+ + OH-

Strong Bases:

Group 1A metal hydroxides

(LiOH, NaOH, KOH,

RbOH, CsOH)

Heavy Group 2A metal hydroxides

[Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, and

Ba(OH)2]


RXN: Strong acid and a strong base. electricity.

HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) HOH(l) + NaCl(aq)

nonelectrolyte

electrolyte

strong

strong

Na+ + Cl-

H2O(l) +

Na+ + OH-

H+ + Cl- +

“this is the total or overall ionic equation”

H+ + OH- H2O(l)

Cross out the spectators to find the

NET IONIC EQUATION


Strong electricity. and Weak acids

Strong Acids:

HClO4 H2SO4

HNO3 HI

HBr HCl

HClO3

Weak Acids:

“The Rest”

Weak electrolytes

Strong electrolytes


Strong Acids: electricity.

100% ionized (completely dissociated) in water.

HCl + H2O  H3O+ + Cl-

Note the “one way arrow”.

Weak Acids:

Only a small % (dissociated) in water.

HC2H3O2 + H2O H3O+ + C2H3O2-

Note the “2-way” arrow.

Why are they different?


Strong Acids: electricity.

HCl HCl

HCl

HCl

HCl

(H2O)

ADD WATER to MOLECULAR ACID


Strong Acids: electricity.

Cl-

H3O+

(H2O)

Cl-

H3O+

H3O+

Cl-

Cl-

H3O+

H3O+

Cl-

Note: No HCl molecules remain in solution, all have been ionized in water.


Weak Acid Ionization: electricity.

HC2H3O2

HC2H3O2

(H2O)

HC2H3O2

HC2H3O2

HC2H3O2

Add water to MOLECULES of WEAK Acid


Weak Acid Ionization: electricity.

HC2H3O2

HC2H3O2

(H2O)

HC2H3O2

H30+ C2H3O2-

HC2H3O2

HC2H3O2

Note: At any given time only a small portion of the acid molecules are ionized and since reactions are running in BOTH directions the mixture composition stays the same.


What is the total ionic equation for the following formula unit equation?

HF(aq) + KOH(aq)  KF(aq) + H2O(l)

weak strong strong electrolyte non-electrolyte

Overall ionic equation:

HF(aq) + K+(aq)+OH-(aq)  K+(aq)+F-(aq) + H2O(l)

Net ionic equation: (Cross out the spectators)

HF(aq) + OH-(aq)  F-(aq) + H2O(l)

HF is a weak acid

weak electrolyte


What is the total ionic equation for the following formula unit equation?

HC2H3O2(aq) + NaOH(aq)  NaC2H3O2(aq) + H2O(l)

weak acid strong base strong electrolyte weak electrolyte

Overall ionic equation:

HC2H3O2(aq) + Na+(aq)+OH-(aq)  Na+(aq)+ C2H3O2-(aq) + H2O(l)

Net ionic equation: (Cross out the spectators)

HC2H3O2(aq) + OH-(aq)  C2H3O2-(aq) + H2O(l)


Net Ionic equations with unit equation?Single Replacement RXNs:

Cu(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)

Cu(s) + 2Ag+ + 2NO3- Cu2+ + 2NO3- + 2Ag(s)

Over-all:

Cross out the spectator ions.


Net Ionic equations with Single Replacement RXNs: unit equation?

Cu(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)

Cu(s) + 2Ag+ + 2NO3- Cu2+ + 2NO3- + 2Ag(s)

Over-all:

Cu(s) + 2Ag+ Cu2++ 2Ag(s)

Net ionic Eq.:

Copper is more reactive

than silver!


Let’s try: Mg in HCl(aq) unit equation?

Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

Mg + 2H+ + 2Cl- Mg2+ + 2Cl- + H2(g)


Fe in AgNO unit equation?3(aq)

HCl and NaHCO3(aq) 

NaOH and H3PO4(aq)


Study for a Quiz! unit equation?


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