Impacts of Climate on EcoSystems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment (ICESCAPE)
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Impacts of Climate on EcoSystems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment (ICESCAPE) Kevin R. Arrigo Stanford University. Background. Given ongoing changes in the Arctic Ocean… How has primary production changed in recent years?. Changes in Arctic Productivity.

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Impacts of Climate on EcoSystems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment (ICESCAPE)Kevin R. ArrigoStanford University


Given ongoing changes in the Arctic Ocean…How has primary production changed in recent years?

Changes in Arctic Productivity

  • Between 1998 and 2009, annual primary production increased by 134 Tg C(statistically significant trend)

  • A 38% increase over the last twelve years

  • Unexpected given

  • presumed nutrient

  • limitation

  • Largest increases

  • on continental

  • shelf

Changes in Arctic Productivity

Annual production highly correlated to open water area

Changes in Arctic Productivity

Increase in production also related to increase in open water season

Open water season has lengthened by an average of 3.8 days yr-1 over last 12 years

45 days longer in 2009 than in 1998

Length of Open Water Season

Days open water >5 x 106 km2

Annual Primary Productivity (1998-2009)

Tg C yr-1


  • Regional variability

  • Atlantic sectors most productive

  • >50% of Arctic primary production

  • Low sea ice cover








Percent yr-1 Change in Primary Productivity 1998-2009

Largest annual increase:

East Siberian Sea


Greenland Sea

Significant values in white









Changes in Arctic Productivity

  • What is responsible for this increase?

  • Lower ice cover and longer growing seasons play a role

  • Increased nutrient supply also must be important

    - Greater shelf-break upwelling as sea ice retreats?

    - Increased eddy activity?

    - Intensified advection of nutrients from Bering Strait?


  • Central science question:

    • What is the impact of climate change (natural and anthropogenic) on the biogeochemistry and ecology of the Chukchi and Beaufort seas?







  • When?

    • June 15 - July 21, 2010

    • & September 2011

  • Where?

    • Start in Dutch Harbor, AK

    • Cruise to Bering Strait

    • Beaufort/Chukchi Sea

    • - Continental shelf

    • - Canada Basin

    • Sea ice sampling

    • Back through Bering Strait

    • End In Seward, AK


Physical Oceanography:

Bob Pickart – XBTs, ADCP, eddies

Jim Swift – CTD, O2, salinity

Mike Steele – ARGO floats

Jinlun Zhang – 3D coupled physical-chemical-biological ice-ocean modeling

Eddy formation from dense water outflow


2-D transect

through a

cold-core eddy

in 2002


cold-core eddy

We hope to conduct a three-dimensional survey of a cold-core eddy, with the full suite of biological measurements.


Biological Oceanography:

Kevin Arrigo and Greg Mitchell – Primary production, microalgal abundance (ice and water column) and physiology

Sam Laney – Phytoplankton community composition

Eva Ortega-Retuerta - Bacterial production

Jinlun Zhang – 3D coupled physical-chemical-biological ice-ocean modeling

Monitoring Climate-Driven Changes in Arctic Algal Assemblages

PIs: Sam Laney & Heidi Sosik

Biology Dept., Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Use Imaging FlowCytobot technology to assess spatial & vertical variability in Arctic algal assemblages.

Combines flow cytometry, individual cell imaging, & automated image classification to assess the composition of microalgal assemblages.

Quantifies cells ml-1 of different algal taxa

Instrument images ~500 cells per mL in ~ 4 mins.

Uses a computer & classifier algorithm to sort images by “taxon”




& ~25 other categories currently…

Olson et al. 2003; Olson & Sosik 2007; Sosik & Olson 2007


Chemical Oceanography:

Nick Bates – Carbon cycle measurements (e.g. DIC, alkalinity)

Jim Swift – Nutrients (e.g. NO3, NO2, NH4, PO4 , SiO3), O2, salinity

Jinlun Zhang – 3D coupled physical-chemical-biological ice-ocean modeling

STS/ODF will collect water

samples from a 12-place

rosette with 30-liter bottles.

Rosette will be outfitted with:

- SeaBird 911+ CTD

w/ dual C/T sensor

- Oxygen sensor,

- Flourometer

- Tranmissometer

- CDOM fluorometer

On-board seawater analysis equipment will include:

- Salinometers

- Oxygen autotitration rig

- 5-channel nutrient autoanalyzer (NO3, NO2, NH4, PO4, and SiO3).


Optical Oceanography:

Stan Hookerand Greg Mitchell – Spectral Lu, Ed, AOPs, IOPs

Rick Reynolds and Dariusz Stramski – Particle size distribution, bb, volume scattering, SPM

Atsushi Matsuoka – aCDOM

Robert Frouin – Atmospheric correction algorithm

Mitchell Group

Chl a (mg m-3)

Southern Ocean

High latitudes are unique

Make detailed measurements of ap, ad, CDOM and backscatter to better understand Arctic Ocean bio-optical properties to

Improve Chl a and productivity algorithms required for ecological modeling.

In polar regions, standard NASA algorithms based on low latitude data underestimate Chl a (Mitchell 1992, Arrigo et al. 1998).

Will collect data to determine relationships between reflectance, Chl a and IOPs.







Mitchell Group

Inversion of the bio-optical properties in Mackenzie Bay, Beaufort Sea using MODIS-Aqua data of 7/6/2008 and QAAv5 algorithm of Lee et al.

A. aph = phytoplankton absorption

B. adg = CDOM + detritus

C. bbp = particle backscatter.

Will determine details of absorption and backscattering to improve algorithms and retrievals for key biogeochemical properties

Will provide near-real time delivery of satellite imagery to the ship for cruise planning.

Improving Existing Satellite Color Observations of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas for Biogeochemical Modeling

PI: Robert Frouin, SIO/UCSD; Co-I: P.-Y. Deschamps, LOA/U. Lille;

Co-I: B. Pelletier, I3M/U. Montpellier


Improved atmospheric correction of satellite ocean-color imagery in the presence of snow/ice and clouds.


Generate, for the Chukchi and Beaufort seas, a daily time series of satellite-derived marine reflectance and chlorophyll concentration at 4.63 km resolution.


- Use of multiple ocean-color sensors (MERIS, SeaWiFS, MODIS).

- Use of appropriate atmospheric correction algorithm (POLYMER).

- Reconstruction of missing data.

MERIS image of the Chukchi Sea showing that water reflectance is correctly retrieved by the POLYMER algorithm, but not by the MEGS algorithm in the presence of a large semi-transparent cloud.


Sea Ice:

Don Perovich – Concentration, thickness, salinity, snow cover, optical properties

Kevin Arrigo – Primary production, microalgal abundance, and physiology

Karen Frey – CDOM, DOC, O2 isotopes

Jinlun Zhang – 3D coupled physical-chemical-biological ice-ocean modeling

Planktonic Ecosystem Response to Changing Sea Ice and Upper Ocean Physics in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas: Modeling, Satellite and In Situ Observations

Jinlun Zhang, Carin Ashjian,

Robert Campbell, Victoria Hill,

Yvette Spitz, and Mike Steele

Biology/Ice/Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (BIOMAS)Synthesis and modeling of the integrated system of sea ice, the upper ocean, and the plankton ecosystem in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas

BIOMAS grid configurationand ecosystem model


  • Data Policy:

  • Preliminary data will be staged at an ftp site at Stanford


  • All data collected will be subject to the standard NASA Earth Science data policy (

  • Data collected are required to be submitted to the NASA SeaBASS archive ( within one year of collection.


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