Physics and Technology of Modern Semiconductor Devices
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Physics and Technology of Modern Semiconductor Devices. Chapter II : 热平衡时的能带和载流子浓度. 半导体材料. 绝缘体 : 电导率很低,约介于 10 -18 S/cm ~ 10 - 8 S/cm, 如熔融石英及玻璃; 导 体:电导率较高,介于 10 4 S/cm ~ 10 6 S/cm ,如铝、银等金属。 半导体:电导率则介于绝缘体及导体之间。. 半导体材料. 硅的优势:. 硅器件在室温下有较佳的特性; 高品质的硅氧化层可由热生长的方式产生,成本低;

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Physics and Technology of Modern Semiconductor Devices

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Physics and Technology of Modern Semiconductor Devices

Chapter II :


:10 -18S/cm10 -

8S/cm,

10 4S/cm

106S/cm



25%


(compound)

IVIVSiC

III-VGaAsGaPInAs

II-VIZnOZnSCdTe

IV-VIPbSPbSePbTe


III(Al)(Ga)V(As)AlxGax-1AsAxB1-xCyD1-yGaxIn1-xAsyp1-y(GaP)(InAs)(GaAs)

(GaAs),


(compound)


(lattice)(unit cell)


abc

Rma + nb+ pc

mnp


:

(simple cubic,sc)a(polonium)

(body-centered,bcc),(sodium)(tungsten)


(face-centered cubic, fcc):

12(aluminum)(copper)(gold)(platinum)


1/4(a)

(zinc-blende lattice)III-V(GaAs)III(Ga)V(As)


1:

()(1/8)8()+1()2

[]=a

=a=

=/=

68%32%


2 300K5.43


8

=/


(Miller indices)

()

(hkl)


( )x{hkl}{100}(100)(010)(001)[hkl][100](100)x[111](111)

<hkl><100>[100][010][001]


a3a2a1/a1/3a1/2a6:2:3(6a)(623)


44(covalent bonding)



GaAsAsGaAsGa


(hole)


m0q0free-space permittivityhPlank constantn


(n1)(degenerate)

NNNa


NN3s3p

44


()()ECEV

(EC-EV)Eg


pm0

Ep


mn(n)

-Ep


(mpp)

mn0.25m0 ()mpm0()p0Eg


-(p0)

0.063m0


-p0[100]ppC(Eg),(pC)0.19m0



[(Cu)][(Zn)(Pb)]


,()


(SiO2)



(1eV)


T0KEg1.12eV1.42eVkTEg


intrinsic semiconductor

N (E)F(E)(EC0)Etop


ncm3N(E)F(E)

(Feimidistribution function)E

kT(Kelvin)EF


(Fermi level)1/2


F(E)EF3kT200.05


E


NENEE1/2


:

(b)N(E)(c)F(E)(d)n(E)E()(d)


1(EFECkT)


Nc


EC


300K

NC2.861019cm3

4.71017cm-3

p

NV


NV2.661019cm-3

7.01018cm-3

ni:

,npni

Ei


Ei



Eg=EC-EV

ni 9.65109cm-3

2.25106cm3

ni


extrinsic

(donor)

(a)545n


(acceptor)

34holep


(ionization energy) EDmnm0s

0.025eV0.007eV


0.05eV

(kT)


(nondegenerate)EFEV3kTEC3kT


ED


p=NA


(EC-EV)


niEiEi


npni2


: 1016(300K)

: 300K

ni9.65109cm-3




()()

n


nnmajority carriernminority carrier


ppp


|NDNA|ni



ND1015cm3


(nnND)


(degenerate)npEFECEV


bandgapnarrowing effectEg


ND1018cm3Eg0.022eV2%NDNC2.861019cm3Eg0.12eVEg


End of Chapter II


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