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Chapter 7. The Logic Of Sampling Key Terms. Nonprobability sampling Technique in which samples are selected in a way that is not suggested by probability theory.

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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

The Logic Of SamplingKey Terms

  • Nonprobability samplingTechnique in which samples are selected in a way that is not suggested by probability theory.

  • Snowball samplingResearcher collects data on members of the target population that can be located, then asks those individuals to provide the information to locate other members.

  • Quota samplingUnits are selected into a sample on the basis of prespecified characteristics, so the total sample will have the same distribution of characteristics assumed to exist in the population being studied.

  • Probability samplingSamples are selected in accord with probability theory, typically involving some random selection mechanism.

  • RepresentativenessQuality of a sample having the same distribution of characteristics as the population from which it was selected.

  • EPSEMEqual probability of selection method.

  • ElementUnit about which information is collected and that provides the basis of analysis.

  • PopulationThe theoretically specified aggregation of study elements.

  • Study populationAggregation of elements from which the sample is actually selected.

  • Random selectionEach element has an equal chance of selection independent of any other event in the selection process.

  • Sampling unitElement or set of elements considered for selection in some stage of sampling.

  • ParameterSummary description of a given variable in a population.

  • StatisticSummary description of a variable in a sample.

  • Sampling errorThe degree of error to be expected of a given sample design.

  • Confidence levelExpression of the accuracy of sample statistics.

  • Confidence intervalRange of values within which a population parameter is estimated to lie.

  • Sampling frameList or quasi list of elements from which a probability sample is selected.

  • Simple random samplingBasic sampling method assumed in the statistical computations of social research.

  • Systematic samplingEvery kth element in the total list is chosen for inclusion in the sample.

  • Sampling intervalStandard distance between elements selected in the sample.

  • Sampling ratioProportion of elements in the population that are selected.

  • StratificationGrouping of units composing a population into homogenous groups before sampling.

  • Cluster samplingA multistage sampling in which natural groups are sampled initially with the members of each selected group being subsampled afterward.

  • PPSProbability proportionate to size.

  • WeightingGiving some cases more weight than others.