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The English Colonies. Standard 1.1. British Colonialism. Began @ Jamestown, VA 1607 Most colonies for profit (joint-stock companies) ; needed raw materials & mkts . Headright system allowed 50 acres to anyone who paid own or someone else’s way Indentured servants did most of work

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The english colonies

The English Colonies

Standard 1.1


British colonialism
British Colonialism

  • Began @ Jamestown, VA 1607

  • Most colonies for profit (joint-stock companies); needed raw materials & mkts.

  • Headright system allowed 50 acres to anyone who paid own or someone else’s way

  • Indentured servants did most of work

  • Many clashes w/Natives (Pocahontas)



Regions
Regions

  • New England: CT, MA, NH, RI

  • Middle: DE,NY, NJ, PA

  • Southern: GA, MD, NC, SC, VA


Religion
Religion

  • New England: came for religious freedom; did not practice it; Roger Williams booted from Plymouth & est. RI; Great Awakening renewed religious fervor

  • Middle: many Quakers; accepting of everyone except Jews; MD’s Act of Toleration (1619) allowed Catholics in

  • South: remained Anglican (Church of England)


Education
Education

  • New England: only boys went to school; trained to be ministers; girls learned how to keep a home @ home

  • Middle: public schools for boys only

  • Southern: private tutors came to homes; plantations too spread out for schools


Society
Society

  • New England: began w/everyone equal; economic prosperity led to social classes; developed organized towns; highly structured life

  • Middle: same as New England except larger cities; less structured life

  • Southern: classes developed due to indentured servant & slave labor systems; harsh slave code adopted from Barbados; few big cities (ports)


Economics
Economics

  • New England: subsistence farming; shipbuilding; fishing/whaling; trade

  • Middle: farming; craftsmen; merchants; MUCH diversity

  • Southern: cash crops (rice, indigo, TOBACCO); shipped from own piers or port cities


Politics
Politics

  • based on British system of Parliament; foundations in Magna Carta & English Bill of Rights

  • charter colonies: governed by joint-stock companies; self-governing; Jamestown developed into Virginia; VA House of Burgesses 1st legislature in colonies; MD, GA, PA

  • proprietary cols.: governed by an owner or group of owners selected by king; NY, NC, SC


More politics
More Politics

  • royal cols.: under direct control of the crown (king or queen in power); VA became one in 1624 (King James I was mad)


Proof of learning 1 24
Proof of Learning 1/24

  • What were the education requirements in New England?

  • Why were people in the South so isolated?

  • Name 2 examples of diversity in the Middle Colonies.

  • Of the 3 governing systems (royal, proprietary, charter), which would you prefer to live in & why?


Bell work 8 29
BELL WORK 8/29

Answer these on the back of your map:

  • Why did the English allow economic freedom to grow in the colonies?

  • Which sections posed the greatest threat to mercantilism? The least?

  • Why did the colonists resent mercantilism?

  • How might this lead to future conflict?



Origins
Origins

  • ideas from England

  • Magna Carta (1215): citizens could question taxes; right to jury trial

  • English Bill of Rights (1689): monarch can’t suspend Parliament, collect taxes w/o permission; protected freedom of speech

  • Rule of law: everyone must obey laws; we call it “limited gov’t.”


Circumstances in new world
Circumstances in New World

  • Indirect control & new situations/ppl

  • House of Burgesses (1619): VA; designed to attract colonists & keep order; only property owners could vote

  • Mayflower Compact (1620): Puritans believed ppl. formed govt.; male church members could vote; governed by elders of church through town meetings; est. General Court


Glorious revolution
Glorious Revolution

  • bloodless overthrow of King James

  • replaced w/William & Mary; agreed to abide by Eng. Bill of Rights

  • John Locke: wrote Social Contract; man had right to life, liberty, & property; govt. gets power from the ppl.

  • salutary neglect begins; policy of letting colonies govern selves


French indian war
French & Indian War

  • 1756-63; called Seven Years War in Europe

  • turf war in N. America between Fr. & Br.

  • Britain won

  • extremely costly; piled taxes on colonists


Results of the war
Results of the War

  • Navigation Acts enforced; taxes collected directly by Parliament

  • Stamp Act, Townshend Acts, Tea Act, Proclamation of 1763, Quartering Act followed

  • Led to est. of Sons & Daughters of Liberty, Boston Massacre, Boston Tea Party

  • Intolerable Acts came due to the Tea Party


The colonies unite
The Colonies Unite

  • Felt rights as Englishmen being violated; “No Taxation Without Representation” cry begins

  • 1st Continental Congress: delegates in Philadelphia, Sept. 1774; supported protests in MA; vowed force if Britain attacked; agreed to reconvene May 1775

    BUT…..


Revolution begins
Revolution Begins

  • Lexington & Concord: April 1775; British trying to take our ammunition; also hunting Sons of Lib. leaders, S. Adams & J. Hancock; 1st battle of Revolution

  • 2nd Continental Congress: May 1775; divided by loyalties; organized Continental army & named G. Washington commander


Proof of learning 1 30
Proof of Learning 1/30

  • Name the 2 earliest examples of colonial self-government.

  • How did the French & Indian War lead to the Revolution?

  • Explain the colonists’ “battle cry.”

  • What was the first battle of the Revolution & who led the army?


The Declaration of

Independence

Standard 1.3


British flag

English flag

Thomas Jefferson

Benjamin Franklin

John Hancock


When in the course of human events p 109 111
“When in the course of human events…” (p. 109-111)

  • written primarily by Thomas Jefferson

  • issued July 4, 1776

  • explains why we seek independence

  • trying to sway Loyalists & neutral colonists


Parts of the declaration
Parts of the Declaration

  • preamble: explains why we’re fighting

  • body: outlines beliefs on govt; unalienable rights; ppl can alter or abolish abusive govt; “We hold these truths to be self-evident…”

  • grievances: complaints against King George III

  • declaration of independence


What it meant
What it Meant

  • we could form alliances; France jumps first after Battle of Saratoga (turning point in war)

  • Spain helped, too

  • Battle of Yorktown (1781): in VA; end of war; Gen. Cornwallis surrendered to GW

  • inspired revolutions worldwide (France, Latin America)

  • set up new govt. under Articles of Confederation


Proof of learning 2 1
Proof of Learning 2/1

  • Who was the chief author of the Declaration of Independence?

  • Was the document issued before, during, or after the Revolution?

  • Explain the importance of Saratoga & Yorktown.

  • What impact did the document have worldwide?



What it did
What it did

  • est. framework for gov’t

  • resolved conflict over land grants in west w/ Land Ordinance 1785 (see p. 138) & NW Ordinance (defined requirements for statehood)

  • fed. govt. could make war & peace, sign treaties


What it did not do
What it did NOT do

  • no chief executive

  • no power to enforce treaties

  • no federal Indian policy

  • no federal taxes

  • no federal trade policies

  • control prices

  • no fed. courts


Other difficulties
Other Difficulties

  • 9 states had to approve most laws

  • unanimous approval for amendments

  • Shays’ Rebellion: 1786-87; 1,200 farmers protested foreclosures; tried to keep courts closed to keep farms; militia called out

  • cracks in system beginning to show in just 5 years


Proof of learning 2 4
Proof of Learning 2/4

  • Where was the Northwest Territory?

  • What act allowed for the orderly division of lands in the NW Territory?

  • Why did the Articles of Confederation not have a strong central (federal) government?

  • Which weakness was most significant & why?


The Constitution

Standard 1.4


What big name is missing?

Who am I?

J. Madison

Who am I?


The end of the articles
The End of the Articles

  • central government not powerful enough

  • states had strong legislatures, weak executives

  • trade crisis w/Britain when they cut us off; created recession that resulted in Shays’ Rebellion

  • Confederation Congress met to revise Articles of Confederation


Constitutional convention
Constitutional Convention

  • RI didn’t come; had to write something new since amending the Articles had to be ___________________

  • James Madison called “Father of the Constitution”; came w/a plan (VA Plan)

  • GW elected pres. of convention; B. Franklin, J. Adams there, too

  • TJ in France


Features of the constitution
Features of the Constitution

  • compromises on representation (Great Compromise), counting slaves (3/5 Compromise), slavery (leave it alone until 1808)

  • compromise on electing president (established the electoral college)


Structure of the constitution
Structure of the Constitution

  • Preamble: “We the people…”; sets out 6 goals (to form a more perfect union, establish justice, ensure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, secure the blessings of liberty)

  • Articles: 7; set framework for government

    • I: Legislative Branch

    • II: Executive Branch

    • III: Judicial Branch

    • IV: Relations Among States

    • V:Amending process

    • VI: National Supremacy

    • VII: Ratification


  • Amendments: 27; first 10 called Bill of Rights (protect personal freedoms); by EOC you need to know 13,14,15, 17, 18, 19, 21, 24, 26

Change is Good!


Ratification debate
Ratification Debate

  • Federalists for Constitution

  • Anti-Federalists against the Constitution; wanted a bill of rights

  • The Federalist Papers: written by J. Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay; leading Federalists; published in newspapers anonymously; supported by T. Jefferson; written to persuade states to ratify Constitution


Proof of learning 2 5
Proof of Learning 2/5

  • Why did the Constitutional Convention write a new form of government instead of amending the Articles?

  • What compromise resolved the issue of representation in Congress?

  • What is the purpose of the Preamble?

  • Who wrote the Federalist Papers? Why?


5 principles of the constitution
5 Principles of the Constitution

  • Separation of Powers: establishes 3 branches of govt.

  • Checks & Balances: keeps one branch from getting more powerful than the others

  • Federalism: sets up levels of govt (federal, state, local)

  • Popular Sovereignty: the people have a voice

  • Limited Power of Govt:everyone follows the rules


6 goals of constitution
6 GOALS OF CONSTITUTION

  • Form a more perfect union

  • Establish justice

  • Insure domestic tranquility

  • Provide for the common defense

  • Promote the general welfare

  • Secure the blessings of liberty


Use your notes from yesterday (Principles of the Constitution) to decide which principle your slip demonstrates. Then go stand in front of that sign. No sign will have more than 5 representatives.


Proof of learning 2 8 use notes from tuesday
Proof of Learning 2/8 Constitution) to decide which principle your slip demonstrates. Then go stand in front of that sign. No sign will have more than 5 representatives.Use notes from Tuesday

  • Define ratification.

  • What group supported ratification of the Constitution?

  • What group opposed it?

  • What is a bill of rights? Why did some feel it was necessary?

  • What is our Bill of Rights?


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