Paraphrasing plagiarism apa documentation
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Paraphrasing, plagiarism, & apa documentation. GSU Writing Center Workshop. A Statement on Plagiarism.

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Paraphrasing plagiarism apa documentation

Paraphrasing, plagiarism, & apa documentation

GSU Writing Center

Workshop


A statement on plagiarism

A Statement on Plagiarism

  • Plagiarism (the intentional or unintentional theft of intellectual ideas), occurs whenever any information is used from another source without giving the author(s) of that source credit for the information.

  • You must document sources every time you borrow any information, including facts, statistics, numbers, ideas, concepts, names, locations, or dates.

  • Even if you are paraphrasing or summarizing information, you must still provide a citation for that information.

  • For a more detailed statement on plagiarism, please see: http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/mla/plagiarism.shtml


What is paraphrasing

What is Paraphrasing?

Paraphrasing is the process of the writer breaking down what he or she is reading, pulling out only the information that is relevant to the topic he or she is writing on. Properly paraphrased information should be written in the writer’s own words with an understanding of the information he or she is choosing to use.

Research writing should include not only direct quotations, but paraphrased and summarized information as well.

When writing a research paper, you are expected to integrate your cited material into your paper. Simply using direct quotes will not accomplish that.

Paraphrasing information drastically improves the quality and flow of any piece of writing.

Thus, paraphrasing is one part writing style, one part APA format.


How to do it

How to Do It!

  • Find the main idea within a direct quote that you plan on using.

  • Read that quote multiple times until you have a strong understanding of it.

  • Take that idea and write it down on a separate piece of paper. Ignore everything else the author said that isn’t that idea.

  • Incorporate the idea into your paper using your own words.


Example of paraphrasing a quote

Example of Paraphrasing a Quote

  • Topic: The importance of meditation in stress management.

  • Quote: “Through the implementation of private, focused, daily meditation in a quiet space, 70% of participants reported feeling less stressed, while 59% reported feeling more confident in their sexual relationships, and 68% reported feeling physically energized” (Corbin, 2001, p. 418).


Example of paraphrasing a quote1

Example of Paraphrasing a Quote

  • Topic: The importance of meditation in stress management.

  • Quote: “Through the implementation of private, focused, dailymeditation in a quiet space, 70% of participants reported feeling less physically and emotionally stressed, while 59% reported feeling more confident in their sexual relationships, and 68% reported feeling physically energized”(Corbin, 2001, p. 418).

    • Always exclude information that doesn’t relate directly to your topic. Since this is focusing on stress management, we don’t need the additional information.


Example of paraphrasing a quote2

Example of Paraphrasing a Quote

  • Topic: The importance of meditation in stress management.

  • Paraphrased info: The benefits of private meditation have been shown to alleviate both physical and emotional stress in a majority of individuals who regularly set aside time for it (Corbin, 2001).

    • By pulling out the main ideas from the previous quote and ignoring all the other information, the information can be integrated in a clear fashion into the paper’s topic.


Example of integrating two quotes

Example of Integrating Two Quotes

  • Topic: Providing psychological counseling for a patient with lung cancer.

  • Quote 1: “Psychosocial counseling for lung cancer patients should include spouses and target decreasing individual distress and enhancing relationship satisfaction” (Cindy et al., 2008, p. 2).

  • Quote 2: “Psychosocial counseling can prove useful at discovering beneath-the-surface problems that may exist between individuals in a mutually exclusive relationship” (Smith & Carlson, 2005, p. 151).


Example of integrating two quotes1

Example of Integrating Two Quotes

  • Topic: Providing psychological counseling for patients with lung cancer.

  • Quote 1: “Psychosocial counseling for lung cancer patients should include spouses and target decreasing individual distressandenhancing relationship satisfaction” (Cindy et al., 2008, p. 2).

  • Quote 2: “Psychosocial counseling can prove useful at discovering beneath-the-surface problemsthat may exist between individuals in a mutually exclusive relationship” (Smith & Carlson, 2005, p. 151).

    • In this instance, you want to integrate any common ideas that exist between the two quotes being used.


Example of integrating two quotes2

Example of Integrating Two Quotes

  • Topic: Providing psychological counseling for patients with lung cancer.

  • Paraphrased info: One important aspect of lung cancer treatment involves psychosocial counseling of the individual and his or her spouse, with the goal of addressing underlying psychological issues between the couple and thus improving their spousal relationship (Cindy et al., 2008; Smith & Carlson, 2005).


Examples of paraphrasing long quotes

Examples of Paraphrasing Long Quotes

  • Topic: ADHD can be treated without medication.

  • Block Quote: “Psychotropic medication should not be the primary means for treating clients exhibiting symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, six out of ten participants reported that medication was not helpful to them, while eight out of ten reported negative side-effects that were more overwhelming than their original symptoms. All data collected for these statistics was tested for validity, and one participant elected not to respond to any of our follow-up questions.” (Etterson et al., 2007, p. 142)


Examples of paraphrasing long quotes1

Examples of Paraphrasing Long Quotes

  • Topic: ADHD can be treated without medication.

  • Block Quote: “Psychotropic medication should not be the primary means for treating clients exhibiting symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, six out of ten participants reported that medication was not helpful to them, while eight out of ten reported negative side-effects that were more overwhelming than their original symptoms. All data collected for these statistics was tested for validity, and one participant elected not to respond to any of our follow-up questions.” (Etterson et al., 2007, p. 142)

    • The highlighted section is the main idea that best fits with our topic. Once we separate it from the rest, which we don’t need, we can re-write it in our own words and then incorporate it.


Examples of paraphrasing long quotes2

Examples of Paraphrasing Long Quotes

  • Topic: ADHD can be treated without medication.

  • Paraphrased info: According to Etterson et al. (2007), medication can often result in providing no positive effect to the client or causing side-effects that are worse than any original symptoms.

    • Since our topic isn’t concerned with the specific numbers from the study’s results, we can generalize them to make a statement similar to the one above.


Paraphrasing additional resources

Paraphrasing - Additional Resources

  • http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/QPA_paraphrase.html

  • http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/QPA_paraphrase2.html

  • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/01/


Apa formatting and documentation

APA formatting and documentation


Purpose of apa formatting

Purpose of APA Formatting

  • APA formatting is nothing more than a set of rules to follow for writing academic papers.

  • No one is expected to memorize all of the rules of APA, but you will find it beneficial to know where to go to find them!


Apa paper template

APA Paper Template

  • First and foremost, we recommend using the Writing Center’s APA Paper Template, which can be downloaded from our website.

  • The Template can be found at: http://www.govst.edu/writingcenter/default.aspx?id=28662 (at the top of the page).

  • After you download the template, you can save it to your desktop/flash drive so you can have it available for any paper you need to write. We also recommend using the other resources on the same website for your other writing needs!


Apa documentation expectations

APA Documentation Expectations

  • APA style will require you to provide documentation for any outside research you use in two ways:

    • In-text citations (Appearing in the body of your paper).

    • Reference page entries (Appearing on a separate page at the end of your paper).


In text citations

In-Text Citations

  • Paraphrased Citation – Traditional citations will ask you to include the author’s last name followed by the year of publication for that particular source within the body of your paper.

    • End of sentence, 1 author  ….. (Smith, 2010).

    • Beginning of sentence, 1 author  According to Smith (2010), …..


In text citations1

In-Text Citations

  • Quoted Citation – If you are quoting information, be sure to include the page number from which the quote originates. If the information is coming from a website, you will use paragraph numbers instead of page numbers.

    • End of sentence, one author  “…..” (Smith, 2010, p. 5).

    • Beginning of sentence, one author  According to Smith (2010), “…..” (p. 5).

    • End of sentence, (website)  “…..” (Smith, 2010, para. 2).

    • Beginning of sentence, (website)  According to Smith (2010), “……” (para. 2).


In text citations2

In-Text Citations

  • Multiple Authors – When you have exactly two authors for one source, be sure to list both names in your in-text citation. When you have 3 or more authors, list each author’s last name in your in-text citation for the first time in your paper that you use them. For each time after that, list only the first author’s last name and then use “et al.” to indicate that there are other authors used.

    • End of sentence, 2 authors  ….. (Smith & Essex, 2010).

    • Beginning of sentence, 2 authors  According to Smith and Essex (2010), …..

    • End of sentence, 3+ authors  “…..” (Smith, Vega & Karlov, 2010, p. 5)

    • Beginning of sentence, 3+ authors  According to Smith et al. (2010), “…..” (p.5)


In text citations3

In-Text Citations

  • Source with No Date – If your source does not provide a publication date, use “n.d.” (indicating that no date is provided) in place of the publication year for your in-text citation.

    • End of sentence  ….. (Smith, n.d.).

    • Beginning of sentence  According to Smith (n.d.), …..

  • Source with No Author – If your source does not list an individual as the primary author (commonplace with websites), use the name of the organization or group that created the work you’re citing from.

    • End of sentence  ….. (American Cancer Society, 2012).

    • Beginning of sentence  According to the American Cancer Society (2012), ……


  • In text citations additional help

    In-Text Citations: Additional Help

    • http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/easywriter3e/docsource/2b.asp

    • http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/DocAPACitations.html


    Reference page entries

    Reference Page Entries

    • Reference Page Entries – In addition to citing your information within the body of your paper, you should include a list of references as the last page of your paper. References should be listed in alphabetical order. While different source types will be listed differently, here’s an example of a journal reference page entry.

      • Author’s last name, first initial. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number (issue number), page number(s).

      • Smith, J. (2010). Cognitive behavioral therapy in the group practice. Journal of Psychology, 17(3), 140-215.


    Reference page entries1

    Reference Page Entries

    • Here is another sample of several different reference page entries.

    • LeDoux, J. E. (1995). Emotion: Clues from the brain. Annual Review of Psychology, 46, 209–235. doi:10.1146/annurev.ps.46.020195.001233

    • Mather, M., & Knight, M. R. (2005). Goal-directed memory: The role of cognitive control in older adults’ emotional memory. Psychology and Aging, 20(1), 554–570. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.20.4.554

    • Mather, M., & Knight, M. R. (2006). Angry faces get noticed quickly: Threat detection is not impaired among older adults. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences, 61(4), 54–57.

    • Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., de Bono, J., & Painter, M. (1997). Time course of attentional bias for threat information in non-clinical anxiety. Behavioral Research Therapy, 35(2), 297–303.

    • Include the DOI number at the end of the entry if it is available.


    Reference page entries additional help

    Reference Page Entries: Additional Help

    • http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/DocAPAReferences.html

    • http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/easywriter3e/docsource/2d.asp

    • http://lib.trinity.edu/research/citing/APAelectronicsources.pdf (for research retrieved from online sources).


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