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Age Groups:. Neonatal 1st 4 weeks Infant 1 st year Childhood 1 to 15 Years Preschool 2 to 4 years School 5 to 15 years

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Age groups
Age Groups:

  • Neonatal 1st 4 weeks

  • Infant 1 st year

  • Childhood 1 to 15 Years

  • Preschool 2 to 4 years

  • School 5 to 15 years

  • Adolescent 13 to 19 Years


History physical examination
History&Physical Examination

  • Chief Complaint

  • History

  • Physical Examination


History
History :

  • History of Present Illness

  • Previous History

  • Family History

  • Developmental History

  • Social & Environmental History


History of present illness

Age &Sex

Explain CC

Feeding&Appetite

Vomiting

Thirst

Abdominal pain

Bowel habit

Weight gain or loss

Discharge from eyes ,ears,nose

Sore throat

Cough

Breathlessness

Mouth breathing

Localized pain or swelling

History of Present Illness:


History of present illnes

Skin Lesions or rash

Jaundice

Cyanosis

Pallor

Musculature

Walking

Coordination

Speech

Headache

Vision

Hearing

Dysuria &Frequency

Bed Wetting

Character of urine

Mood

……….

History of Present Illnes


Previous history
Previous History

Pregnancy Hx

Delivery Hx

Neonatal Hx

Nutritional Hx

Vaccination Hx

Previous infection Dis.

….


Family history
Family History

  • Parents

  • Abortion

  • Other brothers &Sisters

  • Hx of SIDS

  • ….


Developmental history
Developmental History

  • Smiling

  • Sitting

  • Standing

  • Walking

  • Speech

  • ….




Social environmental history
Social & Environmental History

  • Divorce

  • Addiction

  • Disabilities

  • Death

  • Economy

  • …..


Physical examination

General Inspection

Physical Measurements

Head &Neck

Chest & Lung

Cardiovascular System

Abdomen

Perineum &Genitalia

Nervous System

Locomotion System

Physical Examination:


Physical signs of allergy
Physical signs of allergy

The allergic salute

Eczema lesions

Cholinergic urticaria

Angioedema


Physical measurements weight
Physical Measurements: Weight

  • 15% weight loss during first 7-10 days

  • 1st 4 mo. : BW + (Age in mo. * 0.8)

  • 2nd 4 mo. : BW + (Age in mo. * 0.7)

  • 3rd 4 mo. : BW + (Age in mo. * 0.6)

  • Infants birth weight double by 5 mo.

  • Infants birth weight triple by 1 year


Physical measurements weight1
Physical Measurements: Weight

  • 1-9 years add 4 to the age in years and multiply by 2

  • 9-12 triple the age in year


Physical measurements length
Physical Measurements:length

  • At birth 50 cm

  • 6 mo. 68 cm

  • 1year 75 cm

  • 2 years 85 cm

  • 3 years 95 cm

  • 4 years 100 cm

  • Over the next 8 years 5.5 cm each year


This 5.5-year-old boy with growth hormone deficiency (left) was significantly smaller than his twin sister (right).


Physical measurements head circumference
Physical MeasurementsHead circumference

  • At birth 35cm

  • 6 mo. 43.5 cm

  • 1 year 46.5 cm

  • 2 years 49 cm

  • 2-7 years 0.5 cm annually



Physical measurements temperature
Physical MeasurementsTemperature

Low reading thermometers(29-43 c)

Diurnal variation

Rectal 37.5 c (>38 c)

Groin &Auxiliary 37 c (>37.3 c)

oral 37-37.5 (>37.6 c)


Physical measurements blood pressure
Physical Measurements Blood pressure

Right arm

Newborn(Flush method) 70/35

Infancy(Systolic/Diastolic) 80/55

Preschool child (Systolic/Diastolic) 85/60

School child

(Systolic/Diastolic) 90/60


Head neck cranium
Head &NeckCranium

  • Ant. Fontanel: 2.5 * 2.5 cm and closed until 18 mo.

  • Post. Fontanel:0.5 cm and closed shortly after birth.

  • Sutures

  • Cranium


Head neck
Head &Neck

Facial appearance

Large tongue

Marked nasolabial line

Nasal bridge(Low,Wide)

Facial palsy


Low hair line

Hypertelorism

Microganetia



Vitiligo pityriasis alba
Vitiligo Pityriasis alba



Head neck1
Head &Neck

  • Ear

  • Anomalies

  • Low set ear

  • Canal(Wax,Forignbody,Discharge…)

  • Tympanic membrane(Color,Perforation

  • ,Buldging or Retraction)

  • Cone of light


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