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Age Groups: PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Age Groups:. Neonatal 1st 4 weeks Infant 1 st year Childhood 1 to 15 Years Preschool 2 to 4 years School 5 to 15 years

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Age Groups:

  • Neonatal 1st 4 weeks

  • Infant 1 st year

  • Childhood 1 to 15 Years

  • Preschool 2 to 4 years

  • School 5 to 15 years

  • Adolescent 13 to 19 Years


History&Physical Examination

  • Chief Complaint

  • History

  • Physical Examination


History :

  • History of Present Illness

  • Previous History

  • Family History

  • Developmental History

  • Social & Environmental History


Age &Sex

Explain CC

Feeding&Appetite

Vomiting

Thirst

Abdominal pain

Bowel habit

Weight gain or loss

Discharge from eyes ,ears,nose

Sore throat

Cough

Breathlessness

Mouth breathing

Localized pain or swelling

History of Present Illness:


Skin Lesions or rash

Jaundice

Cyanosis

Pallor

Musculature

Walking

Coordination

Speech

Headache

Vision

Hearing

Dysuria &Frequency

Bed Wetting

Character of urine

Mood

……….

History of Present Illnes


Previous History

Pregnancy Hx

Delivery Hx

Neonatal Hx

Nutritional Hx

Vaccination Hx

Previous infection Dis.

….


Family History

  • Parents

  • Abortion

  • Other brothers &Sisters

  • Hx of SIDS

  • ….


Developmental History

  • Smiling

  • Sitting

  • Standing

  • Walking

  • Speech

  • ….


gross motor milestones


fine motor milestones


Social & Environmental History

  • Divorce

  • Addiction

  • Disabilities

  • Death

  • Economy

  • …..


General Inspection

Physical Measurements

Head &Neck

Chest & Lung

Cardiovascular System

Abdomen

Perineum &Genitalia

Nervous System

Locomotion System

Physical Examination:


Physical signs of allergy

The allergic salute

Eczema lesions

Cholinergic urticaria

Angioedema


Physical Measurements: Weight

  • 15% weight loss during first 7-10 days

  • 1st 4 mo. : BW + (Age in mo. * 0.8)

  • 2nd 4 mo. : BW + (Age in mo. * 0.7)

  • 3rd 4 mo. : BW + (Age in mo. * 0.6)

  • Infants birth weight double by 5 mo.

  • Infants birth weight triple by 1 year


Physical Measurements: Weight

  • 1-9 years add 4 to the age in years and multiply by 2

  • 9-12 triple the age in year


Physical Measurements:length

  • At birth 50 cm

  • 6 mo. 68 cm

  • 1year 75 cm

  • 2 years 85 cm

  • 3 years 95 cm

  • 4 years 100 cm

  • Over the next 8 years 5.5 cm each year


This 5.5-year-old boy with growth hormone deficiency (left) was significantly smaller than his twin sister (right).


Physical MeasurementsHead circumference

  • At birth 35cm

  • 6 mo. 43.5 cm

  • 1 year 46.5 cm

  • 2 years 49 cm

  • 2-7 years 0.5 cm annually


microcephaly


Physical MeasurementsTemperature

Low reading thermometers(29-43 c)

Diurnal variation

Rectal 37.5 c (>38 c)

Groin &Auxiliary 37 c (>37.3 c)

oral 37-37.5 (>37.6 c)


Physical Measurements Blood pressure

Right arm

Newborn(Flush method) 70/35

Infancy(Systolic/Diastolic) 80/55

Preschool child (Systolic/Diastolic) 85/60

School child

(Systolic/Diastolic) 90/60


Head &NeckCranium

  • Ant. Fontanel: 2.5 * 2.5 cm and closed until 18 mo.

  • Post. Fontanel:0.5 cm and closed shortly after birth.

  • Sutures

  • Cranium


Head &Neck

Facial appearance

Large tongue

Marked nasolabial line

Nasal bridge(Low,Wide)

Facial palsy


Low hair line

Hypertelorism

Microganetia


Russell-Silver dwarfism


Vitiligo Pityriasis alba


Alopecia areata Tinea capitis


Head &Neck

  • Ear

  • Anomalies

  • Low set ear

  • Canal(Wax,Forignbody,Discharge…)

  • Tympanic membrane(Color,Perforation

  • ,Buldging or Retraction)

  • Cone of light


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