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Family Tree of Antennas David Conn VE3KL PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Family Tree of Antennas David Conn VE3KL. Acknowledgements. Doug Leach VE3XK Bert Barry VE3QAA QCWA Members The Inventors References given in slides ARRL Antenna book. Why Make a Family Tree. To understand the overall (complex) picture To enable us to select a good antenna

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Family Tree of Antennas David Conn VE3KL

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Family Tree of AntennasDavid Conn VE3KL

Acknowledgements

Doug Leach VE3XK

Bert Barry VE3QAA

QCWA Members

The Inventors

References given in slides

ARRL Antenna book

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Why Make a Family Tree

  • To understand the overall (complex) picture

  • To enable us to select a good antenna

  • To organize and compare existing designs

Antenna Types

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Antenna Types 1…6

  • Resonant Wires: Dipole, Yagi, Quad, Vertical, Moxon Square …….

  • Long wires (non-resonant): Zepp/G5RV…

  • Resistively Loaded: Beverage, Pennant, Rhombic …

  • Small Loops/Wires: Resonant Loading Circuits

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Antenna Types 1…6

5. Phased Arrays: Yagi, Collinear, Sterba Curtain, Rhombic, Four Element Rectangular Array, Many Others …

  • Lens Antennas for UHF/Microwaves: Parabolic Dish, Helix …

Family Tree

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Radiation

Waves

Circuits

Transmission Lines

Ground/Ionosphere

Transmitting Antennas

Power

Receiving Antennas

SNR

Amateur Radio

Antennas

(index)

Simulation/Smith Chart

Microwave

UHF/VHF

MF

HF

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Transmitting Antennas

  • Performance measured by Gain & Directivity

  • Low Loss: Transmitter Matching

  • SWR of 2:1 loses half the power

  • Ground/Ionosphere… dominates

  • Polarization (Vertical for MF Transmitters)

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Receiving Antennas…SNR

  • Performance measured by RDF (dB)

  • RDF (Receiving Directivity Factor) defined as peak response in desired direction to average response in all directions

  • Ground/Ionosphere… extremely important

  • Consider Polarization: VHF weak signal (DX) uses Horizontal Polarization

Antenna Examples

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


MF AntennasNeed good S/N…not Gain for Receive

  • Inverted L, T

  • Beverage Antenna… the best?

  • Terminated loops (Pennant, Flag)

  • Vertical Phased Arrays

  • Vertical GP antennas

  • K9AY Loop

  • 4 Square Vertical

    Green indicates Receive Only Antenna

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Inverted L,T,Vertical,K9AY Antennas

http://www.antennex.com/preview/archive3/ltv.htm

http://www.aytechnologies.com/TechData/LoopInstall.htm

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


MF Receiving Antenna Performance

RDF, dB

Vertical phased array B/S

13

2 Broadside Beverages 1.75 W

Good

Beverage 1.0 W

8.64

Small 4X4 Square

Dipole

Flag/Pennant

K9AY

80 m high

Vertical Omni

Beverage 0.5 W

Bad

5.0

Cost

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

Low Dipole

http://www.w8ji.com/antennas.htm


Classic Dipole: type 1 .. Elevation Plot

35 feet

Ground

RDF = 8.3 dB Good

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Classic Dipole: type 1 .. Azimuth Plot

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Classic Vertical Ground Plane: type 1

RDF =5 dB

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Two Element Quad…Azimuth: type 1

RDF = 12.84 dB…high

31 feet high to top

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


End Fed Zepp Antenna: type 2

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


MF Pennant…Receive only: type 3

  • Ground independent

  • Very Low Gain (-35 dB)

  • RDF = 7.39 dB…OK

  • Cardoid pattern

  • F/B 25 dB

  • Small..20 feet each arm

  • Terminated loop class

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Small Magnetic Loop Antenna: type 4Very High Voltages

http://www.

g3ycc.karoo.net/loop.htm

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Microwave Antenna Array: type 5 & 6Space Diversity

Transmitter

Receivers

Wanted Rays

Unwanted Rays

Arrays

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Arrays Antennas

  • Driven arrays: Collinear, Sterba and Bobtail Curtains, two dimensional arrays, three dimensional (lens) arrays, Log Periodic

    • End fire or broadside or any beam shape

  • Parasitic arrays: Yagi

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Linear Arrays (Driven)Directivity increases with Length

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Four Element Rectangle.. Easy to Visualize

ARRL Antenna Book

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Collinear Arrays

http://www.tpub.com/neets/book10/42i.htm

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Bobtail Curtain Driven ArrayMaximum Gain 4.5 dBiLow Angle Radiation

ARRL Antenna Book

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Log Periodic Antenna Array…looks like a tapered Yagi but each element is driven

  • Very Broad Band

  • Dimensions repeat logarithmically

  • QST Sept. 2002

ARRL Antenna Book

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


VHF/UHF/Microwave Antennas

  • Yagi, Quagi, Quads ….stacked versions

  • Cycloid Dipole…

    Circular Polarization..Repeaters

  • Helix and Helix Arrays

  • Vertical, Jpole

  • Corner Reflectors, Parabolas, Lenses

  • Circuit board patch antenna arrays

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


The J Pole Antenna: type 1

  • Easy to Build

  • No ground plane needed

  • Many designs available

http://www.cebik.com/jp2.html

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Cycloid DipoleCircular Polarization…Repeaters: type 1

http://www.wa7x.com/cycloid_info.html

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Summary

  • Tree must include antenna design as well as the physical description

  • Tree must include: ground effects, basics of the ionosphere

  • Tree must link to the most important well proven designs

  • Tree must help amateurs at all levels to select an appropriate antenna

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


Many Thanks: Especially to the Organizers

http://www.dxlc.com/solar/

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario


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