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BOREAL FORESTS. Marion B. and Tesha K. (“Marietta”). LOCATION. - South of the Arctic tundra -Latitude: around 60° -In northern regions across North America, Asia, and Europe. (“Wikipedia”). CLIMATE. Sub arctic Long Winters Dry and cold Short summers (mild-warm) 19 hrs. sun

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Boreal forests


Marion B. and Tesha K.



-South of the Arctic tundra

-Latitude: around 60°

-In northern regions across North America, Asia, and Europe



  • Sub arctic

  • Long Winters

  • Dry and cold

  • Short summers


    19 hrs. sun

  • Winter: 6-8 hrs. sun



  • Avg. annual temp: 0°C (≥-5°C ≤5°C)

  • Avg. annual precipitation: 100-125cm.

  • Temperature Range: 41°C

    (“Blue Planet Biomes”)

Flora types

  • Trees: conifers (evergreens, firs, etc); needles all year long

    -produce cones instead of flowers (“Coniferous Forest”)

    --able to endure intense cold and drought during winter (Living in the Environment)s

    -some mosses and algae grow on ground

    -needles reduce surface area loose less water

    -needle coating=waxy and waterproof

    -stomata sunken in wind protection

    -dark color absorbs heat photosynthesis sooner

    -winterfrozen soil, harsh climatelow plant diversity




  • Predators (with fur): weasel family, lynx, some tigers

    -feed on rabbits, squirrels, lemmings, and voles

    -elk, moose, beavers=large herbivores

  • Birds: insect-eaters (wood warblers), seed eaters(finches, sparrows), omnivores (ravens) and some migratory birds

Degree of biodiversity and biomass pyramid
Degree of Biodiversity and Biomass Pyramid

  • Degree of Biodiversity: ~ 1.5

  • Biomass Pyramid:

(Living in the Environment)


  • “Living in the Environment” Miller, G. Tyler. (2002). Living in the Environment: principles, connections, and solutions. 12th ed. California: Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning.

  • “RuNet”Unknown author (1996). Taiga or Boreal Forests. Retrieved October 17, 2008, from SLW.

  • “Wikipedia”Various authors. "Taiga." 18 Oct. 2008. 20 Oct. 2008 <>.

  • “Marietta” Unknown Author. "Taiga or Boreal Forest." The Boreal Forest Biome. Marietta. 20 Oct. 2008 <>.

  • “Coniferous Forest” Environmental Encyclopedia. Eds. Marci Bortman, Peter Brimblecombe, Mary Ann Cunningham, William P. Cunningham, and William Freedman. Vol. 1. 3rd ed. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2003. p304. 2 vols.

Bibliography cont
Bibliography (cont.)

  • “Blue Planet Biomes” Strahler, Arthur N., Strahler, Arthur H., Elements of Physical Geography. John Wiley & Sons, 1984.