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Vocational Education Since 1900. The Need. The public was disenchanted with the school system in the early 1900s. Schools were out-of-touch with the realities of the real world There was a need for a different type of education. Another Need.

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The Need

  • The public was disenchanted with the school system in the early 1900s.

    • Schools were out-of-touch with the realities of the real world

  • There was a need for a different type of education


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Another Need

  • Farmers needed systematic help to fight their problems (such as the boll weevil)

    • The once a year Farmer’s Institute was not enough

    • The competing programs offered by state boards of agriculture, the General Education Board, universities and agricultural societies was merely a hodge podge of activity

  • Simply put, there was a need for something like the Extension Service.


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First stirrings….extension

  • Farm Demonstration Work in the South to fight the boll weevil and the subsequent hiring of county agents by the General Education Board was the start of extension.


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Early Efforts to Organize Support

  • Governor Douglas of Massachusetts appointed a commission to study schools in that state.

  • In 1906 the Douglas Commission recommended that vocational education be added to the school curriculum.


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Precursors to the Smith Acts

  • Burkett-Pollard Bill (NE) (1906)

    • sought federal aid for the teaching of agriculture in normal (teacher training) schools

  • Clay-Livingston Bill (GA) - 1907

    • sought federal aid to establish an agricultural high school in each congressional district in the United States


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Precursors……cont…..

  • Nelson Amendment (1907)

    • Amendment to the Morrill Act of 1890

    • provided $5,000 for five years, $25,000 annually after five year to land-grant colleges for general support.

    • One special provision of the amendment opened the door to prepare teachers of agriculture . . .


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Nelson Amendment

  • money could be used “for providing courses for the special preparation of instructors for teaching the elements of agriculture and the mechanical arts.”

    • summer school sessions for teachers were utilized extensively (especially elementary teachers)

    • some 4 year teacher training in agriculture started


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Precursors…

  • Davis Bill (MN) (1907)

    • sought federal support for secondary school instruction in agriculture, home economics and the mechanical arts and branch experiment stations


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Precursors…

  • McLaughlin Bill (1909)

    • sought federal support for extension work

  • Dolliver (IA)-Davis (MN) Bill (1910)

    • sought federal support for extension work and secondary vocational education (Dolliver submitted two bills one for extension, one for vocational education but they were combined by the Senate Ag Committee. Things looked good for the bill but Dolliver unexpectedly died)


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Precursors

  • Page Bill (1911, 1912, 1913)

    • sought federal support for extension work, branch experiment stations and secondary vocational education (this was basically the Dolliver bill)

  • The bill never passed for a variety of reasons

    • bills tried to accomplish too much, which divided the support

    • Some folks supported extension but not vocational education and vice versa

    • Page was not very skilled as a legislator


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The Incompetent Senator!

  • Carroll S. Page (VT)


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Senator Page

The Morrill Act has proven to be the beginning … for really carrying vocational education to the masses of our people.


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Precursors

  • Smith-Lever Bill (1912)

    • goal was to establish the extension service

    • This competed with the Page Bill

  • The Great Compromise

    • The supporters of vocational education would support the Smith-Lever Bill. In return, a Commission on National Aid to Vocational Education would be created to study the need for federal funding for vocational education.


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Finally!!

  • Smith-Lever Act (1914)

    • established the extension service


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Commission on National Aid to Vocational Education

  • As part of the compromise, the Commission was “stacked” with supporters of Vocational Education

    • The Commission collected data and held hearings

  • The Commission reported there was a need for vocational education in the schools and that it should be federally funded.

  • It took some time for the bill they drafted to pass because of issues surrounding World War I. (Charles Prosser, a committee member wrote the legislation. Smith and Hughes didn’t)


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Finally!!

  • Smith-Hughes Act (1917)

    • provided federal funds to support vocational education in the public schools



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Smith-Lever Provisions

  • “there may be inaugurated in connection with the (land-grant) college or colleges...agricultural extension work which shall be carried on in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture…”


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Smith-Lever Provisions

  • “...in any State in which two or more such colleges have been or hereafter may be established, the appropriations hereinafter made to such State shall be administered by such college or colleges as the legislature of such State may direct”


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Smith-Lever Provisions

  • “That cooperative agricultural extension work shall consist of the giving of instruction and practical demonstrations in agriculture and home economics to persons not attending or resident in said colleges in the several communities, and imparting to such persons information on said subjects through field demonstrations, publications, and otherwise”


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Smith-Lever Provisions

  • Each state was to receive “...$10,000 of which shall be paid annually…”

  • Additional funds were to be disbursed to states on the basis of “the rural population of each State bears to the total rural population of all the States”

    • Note: Legislators in the Midwest wanted the act to say farm population. The South had a much larger rural population than farm population.


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Smith-Lever Provisions

  • A state could not receive the additional funds “...until an equal sum has been appropriated for that year by the legislature of such State, or provided by State, county, college, local authority, or individual contributions from within the State, for the maintenance of the cooperative agricultural extension work provided for in this Act.”


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Smith-Lever Provisions

  • “That before the funds herein appropriated shall become available to any college for any fiscal year, plans for the work to be carried on under this Act shall be submitted by the proper officials of each college and approved by the Secretary of Agriculture”


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Smith-Lever Provisions

  • “ ...no portion of said moneys shall be applied, directly or indirectly, to the purchase, erection, preservation, or repair of any building or buildings, or the purchase or rental of land, or in college-course teaching, lectures in colleges, promoting agricultural trains, or any other purpose not specified in this Act…”


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Smith-Hughes Provisions

  • The first paragraph of the Smith-Hughes Act contained four statements:

    • 1. “to provide for the promotion of vocational education;”

      • The word “promotion” is misleading, a more correct word would be “establishment”.

Tidbit: Since the person (Charles Prosser) who wrote the bill was Director of the National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education, the word promotion might allude to this organization


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Smith-Hughes Provisions

  • 2. “to provide for cooperation with the States in the promotion of such education in agriculture and the trades and industries;”

    • This statement defined what made up vocational education. Why is home economics not mentioned? The word home economics appears 17 other times in the Act. It is believed by some that home economics was not included in the earlier drafts of the bills. Legend has it that Prosser’s wife made him include home economics. The fact that it is missing here gives credence to that legend.

    • Trades and industries covered a broad range of jobs.


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Smith-Hughes Provisions

  • 3. “to provide for cooperation with the States in the preparation of teachers of vocational subjects;”

    • There was much concern over the supply of qualified teachers. Two different paths were taken in regards to vocational teacher training:

      • Agriculture and Home Economics went with a 4 year college degree as a requirement. At that point in time, few public school teachers had four year degrees. This was designed to assure a quality, well-educated teacher and enhance the status of of the field.

      • Trade and Industries chose to pull teachers out of industry. The belief was the master craftsman made the best teacher.


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Smith-Hughes Provisions

  • 4. “and to appropriate money and regulate its expenditure.”

    • This wording as to the purpose of an act is a little strange. It should be self evident.


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Smith-Hughes Funds

  • Provided money to pay salaries of

    • teachers, supervisors, and directors of agricultural subjects

      • Tidbit: Director is an unusual word until one notes that agricultural schools had been established prior to Smith-Hughes in Massachusetts. The person in charge of these schools was a Director. Since Prosser had been associate superintendent for vocational education in Massachusetts, this wording isn’t that strange at all.


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Smith-Hughes Funds

  • Provided money to pay salaries of

    • teachers of trade, home economics and industrial subjects (but no more than 20% of the total money allocated for this purpose could be spent in the area of home economics)

      • Question: Why could Smith-Hughes funds be used to pay salaries of supervisors and directors in agriculture but not in home economics or trades and industries?

      • Question 2: Why was home economics limited to 20%?


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Smith-Hughes

  • Tidbit: Teachers who received their salaries from the Smith-Hughes Act were often called “Smith-Hughes teachers” to distinguish them from teachers in schools not receiving Smith-Hughes funding. Agriculture and home economics was taught in many other schools but not all schools received Smith-Hughes monies because of limited funds.


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Smith-Hughes Funds

  • Providing money for teacher training

Tidbit: State supervisors of each vocational subject were given authority over the teacher trainers. Federal level

supervisors checked the qualifications and approved of the

hiring of teacher educators. Many universities became very dependent upon federal funds to pay vocational teacher educators. When this funding was abolished it created shock waves in many states and institutions of higher education.


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Smith-Hughes Funds

  • The states did not have to use all the provisions of the act. For example, if there were no agriculture programs, it didn’t have to ask for the agriculture money. However:

    • Before a state could receive monies for salaries for any vocational teacher, it must first accept the teacher training monies. This indicates the federal government was serious about training teachers.


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Smith-Hughes Funding

  • Specific amounts of money were allocated to each vocational discipline:

    • Agricultural appropriations were based on each state’s rural population

    • Home economics appropriations were based on each state’s urban population

    • Trade and industrial appropriations were based on each state’s urban population

  • There was to be a 50-50 federal-state match on all salaries


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Smith-Hughes Act - Agriculture

  • “...under public supervision or control...”

  • “...controlling purpose...shall be to fit for useful employment…”

  • “...shall be of less than college grade…”

  • “...meet the needs of persons over fourteen years of age who have entered upon or who are preparing to enter upon the work of the farm or of the farm home…”

    • Question: Does the previous phrase also mean adult education?


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Smith-Hughes - Agriculture

  • “...that such schools shall provide for directed or supervised practice in agriculture, either on a farm provided for by the school or other farm, for at least six months per year”

    • This was interpreted to mean that each student (including adults) is to have a “project” (crops or livestock).

    • If the teacher is to supervise it, then the teacher will need to be employed during the summer. This is the basis for 12 month employment of agriculture teachers.


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Smith-Hughes Funds

  • Provided money to create a “Federal Board for Vocational Education for the administration of this act and for the purpose of making studies, investigations, and reports to aid in the organization and conduct of vocational education”

    • Question: Why did Congress create a special board to administer vocational education?

    • Answer: They were afraid to turn vocational education over to the entrenched education bureaucrats who had been classically educated (remember what happened at UNC.)


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Federal Board for Vocational Education

  • The Board Consisted of:

    • Secretary of Agriculture

    • Secretary of Commerce

    • Secretary of Labor

    • Commissioner of Education

    • Three citizens appointed by the President

      • agriculture

      • manufacturing and commerce

      • labor


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Federal Board

  • “The Commissioner of Education may make such recommendations to the Board relative to the administration of this act as he may from time to time deem advisable.”

  • “It shall be the duty of the chairman of the board to carry out the rules, regulations, and decisions which the board may adopt.”


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Federal Board

  • The Federal Board hired a staff to handle the daily operations and do the real work.

    • Charles Prosser was hired as the Executive Director

    • Federal supervisors were hired in the areas of:

      • Agriculture (N=7)

      • Trades and Industries (N=7)

      • Home Economics (N=3)

      • Commercial Subjects (N=3) (see next slide)

      • Research (3)


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Federal Board

  • Tidbit: One of the areas of investigation the Federal Board could pursue (as specifically mentioned in the act) was commercial education. Also, a division of commercial education was established with three federal supervisors, but no Smith-Hughes money was allocated to salaries of teachers of Commercial Education. A little strange.

  • Today we would call Commercial Education Marketing Education and Business Education.


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Original Federal Regions

North Atlantic

West Central

North Central

Pacific

Ag and T&I had regional offices.Two Ag supervisors worked the South; one was for Black schools.

Southern


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Federal Regions -1920

North Atlantic

Pacific

North Central

In 1920 one region was eliminated and all the regional people moved to Washington.

Southern


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Federal Board

  • Because of the depression, the federal government was restructured in the 1930s.

  • In 1933 the administrative responsibilities and staff of the Federal Board were transferred to the Department of the Interior, Office of Education.

  • The Federal Board continued to operate as an advisory board until 1946 when it was abolished. (Clarence Poe was a member)


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Memorandum of Understanding

  • In 1918 a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was established between federal officials responsible for vocational agriculture and for extension.

  • This MOU was revised from time to time.

  • A brief description of each program was provided, then specific duties of each were outlined.


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Memorandum of Understanding

  • Unless the activity is specifically related to classes taught, the agriculture teacher is not to do extension activities. However, it is recognized there may be isolated instances where the agricultural teacher is called upon by farmers in the school district. This should represent a “small and incidental” part of the job.


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Memorandum of Understanding

  • Teachers of vocational agriculture or representatives of vocational agricultural work should be invited to participate in all meetings conducted by the extension service for the formulation of county and State agricultural programs.


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Memorandum of Understanding

  • The extension service should not enroll vocational agriculture students in 4-H.

  • Services should not overlap.



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The War Years (WWI)

Acres in crop production



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Food Production Act -1917

  • Signed into law on August 10, 1917

  • This is the “sleeper” extension act


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Food Production Act Provisions

  • Livestock Production ($885,000)

    • Disease and pest control, enlargement of livestock production, conservation and utilization of meat


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Food Production Act Provisions

  • Seed Production ($2,500,000)

    • Procuring, storingand furnishing seeds


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Food Production Act Provisions

  • Crop Production ($441,000)

    • Prevention, control and eradication of insects and plant diseases


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Food Production Act Provisions

  • Extension ($4,348,400)

    • Increase food production and eliminate waste through educational and demonstration methods through county, district and urban agents and others


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Impact on Extension

  • By the end of October 1,600 emergency demonstration agents were hired

  • Act was to terminate at the end of the War




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Yearbook of Agriculture, 1918

  • Report of the Secretary of Agriculture

    • “The emergency through which the Nation has passed only served to emphasize the supreme importance of the Cooperative Agricultural Extension Service. It has become increasingly clear that no more important piece of education extension machinery has ever been created. It has been amply demonstrated that the most effective means of getting information to the farmers and their families is through the direct touch of well-trained men and women.”


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Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1918

  • What had just happened to prompt this legislation?


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The Roaring 20s (for whom?)

Good times soon followed


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The Roaring 20s??

  • Agricultural Prices dropped 33% from 1919 to 1920

  • Agricultural Prices dropped 54% from 1920 to 1921


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Plumbing in the 1920s

  • 1 out of 10 farm homes had water indoors

  • 1 out of 2 farm homes had sinks

  • 1 out of 64 farm homes had a water closet, the rest had outhouses

  • Most laundry was done outside


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Identifying the Problem

  • Joint Commission of Agricultural Inquiry -1921

  • National Agricultural Conference -1922

  • Agricultural Conference of 1925

    • Nothing much was accomplished by any of the conferences


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The Farm Bloc

  • A group of 12 senators who organized themselves in 1921 to promote and support agricultural legislation; ranks eventually grew to include 22 senators

  • Non-partisan

  • Similar group, though less effective, was formed in the House


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Capper-Volstead Act - 1922

  • Enabled the development of agricultural cooperatives


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Clark-McNary Act - 1924

  • Section 5 of the act provided for cooperative farm-forestry work


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Purnell Act - 1925

  • Authorized funds for economic research in agricultural experiment stations (this has implications down the road for extension)


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Capper-Ketchum Act - 1928

  • Providing additional funding for extension

  • Specified 80% of the funds were to be used for salaries of extension agents

  • Identified youth activities as being part of extension

  • Equal number of men and women to be appointed as agents

  • Money could support agriculture trains


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Capper-Ketchum Act

  • Gladys Bull, a 4-H member who was attending the national 4-H camp, testified before Congress in support of the Capper-Ketchum bill.

  • Her testimony was powerful and showed the value of 4-H club work.


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Subsequent Vocational Education Acts

  • George-Reed Act --1929-1934

  • George-Ellzey Act --1934 -1937

  • George-Deen Act -- 1936 (1938)

    • increased $ ($14.5 million total)

    • also funded distributive education ($1.2 million)

    • 1st to U.S. Territories

    • Distributive Education funded

  • George-Barden Act (1946)

    • increased $ ($28.8 mil)

    • provided for veteran’s training


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George-Reed Act - 1929

  • Provide additional financial support for vocational education

  • Money was equally divided between agriculture and home economics

    • Ag money based on farm population

    • Home economics money based on rural population

  • Funds were used to hire subject matter specialists in agriculture at the federal level



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The Great Depression

  • Gross Farm Income in 1932 was 1/2 of that of 1929

  • Net income per farm in 1932 was estimated by USDA at $230

  • Between 1920-1933 15,000 banks suspended operation

    • (The NC FFA lost $350 in a bank closure in 1931)

  • 4,000 banks alone closed in 1933


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Era of Farm Legislation

  • Agricultural Adjustment Act - 1933

    • Farmers agreed to reduce acreage in surplus crops in return for benefit payments

  • Farm Credit Administration - 1933

  • Soil Conservation Act - 1935

  • Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act - 1936

  • Rural Electrification Act - 1936



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George-Elzy Act (1934)

  • Provided additional funding for vocational education

  • Money was evenly divided between

    • agriculture

    • home economics

    • trade and industrial education (amount determined by non-farm population)


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Bankhead-Jones Act -1935

  • Title 1 - More money for basic agricultural research

  • Title 2 - Further Development of Cooperative Extension

    • $8 million the first year

    • $2 million each year until $12 million is reached


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George-Deen Act (1936)

  • More $$$$ for vocational education.

  • Recognized Distributive Education as a part of vocational education.

  • Federal funds could be used to support travel of vocational teachers.

  • President Roosevelt was reluctant to sign the bill because general education needed help also.


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During the Depression

  • Extension affected the most

  • Agents typically held 1-3 educational meetings in each township to explain AAA rules and regulations


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Depression years

  • Extension:

    • Assisted in making Federal Emergency Relief Administration feed and seed loans

    • Tried to convince farmers to reduce acreage (buy into the government programs)

    • Convinced farmers that electricity would not make the cows go dry


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Depression Years

  • Lost employees (in 1938)

    • SCS - 159

    • Farm Security Administration - 154

    • AAA - 97





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Agricultural and Vocational Education

From the Depression to Sputnik



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World War II

  • 4-H and FFA

    • Collected scrap metal, rubber, burlap, rags and paper

    • Sold war bonds

    • Grew victory gardens (Feed a Fighter was the 1943 4-H theme)

    • Repaired and built farm machinery in the Ag Shop. Tractor and farm implement manufacturers were concentrating on war equipment.




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4-H Victory Pins ambulances for the war effort.


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WW II Posters ambulances for the war effort.


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FFA Chapters sold War Bonds ambulances for the war effort.


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WWII ambulances for the war effort.

  • Many high school agricultural programs established food preservation centers

    • They still exist in Georgia and Louisiana

    • Primary emphasis was canning vegetables

    • Some had slaughtering facilities also

    • A number of schools in NC had these food preservation centers


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WWII ambulances for the war effort.

  • Served as Victory Farm Volunteers

  • FFA considered buying a bomber but eventually decided not to

  • National FFA Convention limited attendance to official delegates and award winners because of war time travel restrictions


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A metal won by a 4-H member ambulances for the war effort.


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Four-H ambulances for the war effort.

  • 4-H members across the nation gathered scrap metal to build ships to transport war supplies and food to Europe. If members in a state raised enough funds, they could name the ship (called liberty ships)

  • NC 4-H christens two liberty ships – USS Tyrrell and the USS Cassius Hudson


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4-H Scrap Drive ambulances for the war effort.


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WWII ambulances for the war effort.

  • After the war vocational agriculture launched major educational programs for servicemen under the provisions of the GI Bill of Rights

  • Most agriculture teachers taught 3-4 night classes on farming to returning veterans to help them get back into farming and to learn shop skills.

  • Teachers received extra pay and schools received substantial funds to buy equipment for classes.


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GI Bill of Rights ambulances for the war effort.

  • The benefits of this act were later extended to:

    • Korean conflict veterans

    • Viet Nam Vets

  • Agricultural teachers conducted night classes for these vets also


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Bankhead-Flannigan Act - 1945 ambulances for the war effort.

  • Increase funding for extension

  • No more than 2% could be spent in the USDA


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George-Barden Act (1946) ambulances for the war effort.

  • Increased funding for vocational education

  • Indicated federal funds could be used to support travel associated with the Future Farmers of America and the New Farmers of America (this provides the legal basis for the position that FFA is an integral part of agricultural education)

  • Money could be used on vocational guidance


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Agricultural ambulances for the war effort.Marketing Act (1946)

  • Authorized extension programs in marketing, transportation, and distribution of agricultural products (starting to move outside of the just farming and farm homemaker mentality for extension).


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Joint Committee Report on Extension Programs, Policies, & Goals (1948)

  • During the 1930s and 40s the extension service was called on to perform various duties for the national interest.

    • During the depression extension was charged with teaching people about the various government programs and encouraging farmers to participate.

    • In the 40s the mission changed to winning the war.


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Joint Committee Report Goals (1948)

  • Now that peace was at hand and there was no longer a depression, what should the extension service do?

  • Another factor was that many of the extension employees were new.

  • There was also some questions about the relationship of the extension service and farm organizations.

    • (in some states extension was working out of the Farm Bureau office. In some states each was viewed as competition )


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Joint Committee Report Goals (1948)

  • A joint committee appointed by the Secretary of Agriculture and the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges was appointed to study the mission of the extension service.

  • The 10 person panel examined the mission and goals of the extension service.

  • No public hearings were held but the committee consulted with government agency heads and leaders of farm organization.


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Joint Committee Report Goals (1948)

  • Their report is sometimes called the Kepner report because P. V. Kepner of the Federal Extension Service was assigned to assist the committee and compiled the final report.


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Joint Committee Report Goals (1948)

  • Some of the key points/impacts of the report were:

    • Agriculture, home economics and 4-H groups are the primary audience for extension. However, it was noted that urban audiences could not be ignored.

    • Continued emphasis on the importance of one-on-one contacts, meetings, and demonstrations.

    • Changed/improved relationships with farm organizations

    • Established stronger tie between CES to academic base (specialists assigned to academic department instead of being housed in extension administration)


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Clarke-McNary Goals (1948)Amendment (1949)

  • Authorized USDA to cooperate with land-grant colleges in aiding farmers through advice, education, demonstration, etc. in establishing, renewing, protecting and managing wood lots and in harvesting, utilizing, and marketing the products thereof.


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Smith-Lever Act Goals (1948)Amendment (1953)

  • Consolidated all the previous extension legislation

  • Inserted the words “and subjects relating thereto” after agriculture and home economics

    • What are the implications of this?

  • Established a new funding formula based on rural/urban population


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A Look Back Goals (1948)

  • In 1892 the Supreme Court established the doctrine that "separate but equal" was a valid way to handle race relationships (Plessy vs. Ferguson).

  • The court case involving railroad cars in Louisiana. The races could be segregated as long as each race was treated equally.

  • This decision impacted the operation of schools and the extension service until the 1960s.


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Brown vs. Board of Education - Topeka (1954) Goals (1948)

  • This Supreme Court ruling overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson. "Separate but equal" was ruled unconstitutional.

  • The case dealt with equal access to educational opportunities.

  • Over the next few years, this would have implications for extension and vocational education.


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Smith-Lever Amendment (1955) Goals (1948)

  • Authorized work with disadvantaged farms and farm families


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Russians launch Sputnik (1957) Goals (1948)

  • In 1957 the Russians launched Sputnik. This event sent shock waves through out America. Perhaps American education was falling behind.

  • We needed to put more emphasis on science, mathematics, foreign language and technology in order to catch up.


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National Defense Goals (1948)Education Act (1958)

  • This act was passed because of Sputnik

    • “The Congress finds that an educational emergency exists and requires action by the federal government. Assistance will come from Washington to help develop as rapidly as possible those skills essential to the national defense.”

  • A major purpose of the act was strengthen the teaching of mathematics, sciences and modern foreign languages


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National Defense Goals (1948)Education Act (1958)

  • Established a student loan program for college

  • The George-Barden Act of 1946 was amended

    • Area Vocational Schools were to be built to train “technicians” skilled in math and science

      • Many of these schools offered agricultural programs

    • $15 million dollars for the next five years was authorized for this purpose

    • Health Occupations Education was recognized as a part of vocational education

Link to a Summary of the NDEA Act


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A Statement of Scope and Responsibility (A Guide to Extension Programs in the Future) (1958)

  • The Russians had launched Sputnik.

  • There were farm surpluses and low prices

  • It had been 10 years since the last study of extension.

  • A committee of ECOP (Extension Committee on Organization and Policy) was appointed to study the future of extension (ECOP is a committee within NASULGC).


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A Statement of Scope and Responsibility Extension Programs in the Future) (1958)

  • This group appointed nine task forces in the following areas:

    • Production

    • Marketing

    • Resources

    • Management

    • Family

    • Youth

    • Leadership

    • Community

    • Public Affairs


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A Statement of Scope and Responsibility Extension Programs in the Future) (1958)

  • The task forces were composed of various leaders in extension. The report, commonly called the Scope Report, "represents the best thinking of leading Extension workers on how, where, what and with whom the Cooperative Extension Service will be working for many years to come."


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The Scope Report Extension Programs in the Future) (1958)

  • The primary outcome of the report was to broaden the scope of extension by emphasizing management, marketing and public policy. Each task force had specific suggestions about subject matter, clientele, methodology, training, and relationships. Several broad recommendations/observations were found in the report.


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Selected Scope Report Recommendations: Extension Programs in the Future) (1958)

  • There will be new programs which cannot be handled by traditional methods of staffing and organization.

  • There will be programs for new "publics"

  • There will be programs that cross departmental or organizational lines

  • The extension staff of the future will have more specialized personnel at every level.

  • Regular training at the post-graduate level will be expected of virtually all Extension workers.


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Selected Scope Report Recommendations: Extension Programs in the Future) (1958)

  • Training must go beyond technical subject matter for the expanded job of adult education that Extension must be prepared to do.

  • Training must be continuous.

  • Some "re-training" will be needed to give certain Extension workers new skills or knowledge to handle specific changes in their job.


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Selected Scope Report Recommendations: Extension Programs in the Future) (1958)

  • One goal of every training program must be to get the individual Extension worker to re-examine and re-define frequently his own job the scope of his responsibilities, and relationship to others.

  • Sound program planning procedures will strengthen every aspect of Extension work.

  • Research has been, is, and will continue to be the basic resource on which all our programs draw.


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Selected Scope Report Recommendations: Extension Programs in the Future) (1958)

  • The teaching methods used will need to be tailored to specific jobs to be done.

  • All teaching procedures must be continuously evaluated and improvements made in light of the evaluations.

  • In its work with mass media, Extension will need to maintain a highly competitive level of professional performance.


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Selected Scope Report Recommendations: Extension Programs in the Future) (1958)

  • With the growing complexity of problems with which it deals, Extension must provide adequate materials and support for local leaders.


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The Scope Report Extension Programs in the Future) (1958)

  • This report is often referred to by the old-timers in extension as a major report.

  • It clearly showed that extension was in an era of change.

  • High school agriculture would soon change also.


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Panel of Consultants on Vocational Education (1962) Extension Programs in the Future) (1958)

  • After John Kennedy became president, he requested that a special panel be convened to study vocational education. Vocational education was still operating under the provisions of the Smith-Hughes Act but America had changed considerably.


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Panel of Consultants Extension Programs in the Future) (1958)

  • The panel was composed of people from the education profession, labor, industry, agriculture as well as the lay public and representatives from the Departments of Agriculture and Labor.

  • The panel was appointed in 1961 and issued their report, "Education for a Changing World of Work" in 1962.

  • The panel recommended that vocational offerings be expanded, updated, and be made available to all people. (more later when we look at the Vocational Education Act of 1963)


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End of an Era Extension Programs in the Future) (1958)

  • The launching of the Sputnik by the Russians and the ensuing events of the 1960s heralded a new era in agricultural education and extension legislation.

  • The times, they are changing.

  • We are about ready to leave the sow, cow, plow and the stitching and stirring era.

  • We will see what happened in future lessons


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The County Agent Will Change! Extension Programs in the Future) (1958)


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4-H work will change! Extension Programs in the Future) (1958)


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So will FFA and Ag. Ed. Extension Programs in the Future) (1958)



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Post Sputnik Legislation on

  • Legislation affecting Vo. Ed. After the 1950s was more complex and convoluted than earlier legislation.

  • We will discuss only the parts of the acts impacting Vo. Ed., even though the act may have numerous other components.


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National Defense onEducation Act (1958)

  • This act was passed because of Sputnik

    • “The Congress finds that an educational emergency exists and requires actionby the federal government. Assistance will come from Washington to help develop as rapidly as possible those skills essential to the national defense.”

  • A major purpose of the act was strengthen the teaching of mathematics, sciences and modern foreign languages


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National Defense onEducation Act (1958)

  • Established a student loan program for college

  • The George-Barden Act of 1946 was amended

    • Area Vocational Schools were to be built to train “technicians” skilled in math and science

    • $15 million dollars for the next five years was authorized for this purpose


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Vocational Education onAct of 1963

  • This was a MAJOR piece of federal legislation. It replaced the Smith-Hughes Act.

  • Categorical funding for specific vocational disciplines such as agricultural education was abolished.

    • Funding went to states on the basis of their population in certain age categories

    • States decided how to spend the money


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Vocational Education onAct of 1963

  • Expanded the scope of agricultural education to include all areas of agriculture, not just farming.

    • No longer required “supervised practice on a farm”. The idea was to expand the scope of SAE, not do away with it, but that is what some states did.

  • Expanded the scope of home economics education to include all areas of home economics, not just homemaking.


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Vocational Education onAct of 1963

  • Established work study programs for vocational students to provide financial support

  • States had to submit plans for what they planned to do

  • Eliminated federal supervision/control of vocational programs

  • Funding for vocational education was substantially increased


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Educational Amendments (1968) on

  • Amended the 1963 Vocational Education Act

    • Increased funding for vocational education

    • Funds could be used for high school programs, people who have left school, retraining, special needs students, construction of area vocational schools, vocational guidance, contracting vocational education with private institutions, ancillary services (research, teacher training) and administering the state plan.


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Educational Amendments (1968) on

  • Did not categorically fund specific vocational programs, with one exception

    • Specifically allocated money to Consumer and Homemaking Education

  • Of the general appropriations to each state

    • 25% had to be spent on disadvantaged populations

    • 25% had to be spent on out-of-schoolindividuals seeking employment

    • 10% had to be spent on handicappedindividuals


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Educational Amendments (1968) on

  • Authorized money for:

    • Curriculum development (this is the only place agricultural education is mentioned in the act)

    • Residential vocational schools (schools with dorms)

    • Research (National Center for Vocational Education Research was established)

    • Leadership development (selected vocational leaders could get advanced degrees)


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Educational Amendments (1976) on

  • The Educational Amendments of 1976 have five Titles, Title II is concerned with vocational education

  • Authorized more money for vocational education

  • Purpose of the act was to

    • extend, improve and maintain programs

    • overcome come sex discrimination/bias

    • develop new programs


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Educational Amendments (1976) on

  • Monies could be spent on vocational education programs, work study, energy education, area school facilities, support sex equity positions, placement services, Industrial Arts (now Technology Education), support services for females in non-traditional programs, day careservices, displaced homemakers, residential vocational centers.


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Educational Amendments (1976) on

  • There were special appropriations for the disadvantaged

  • Consumer and Homemaking received special funding

  • Every vocational program had to be evaluated every five years


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Carl Perkins Act (1984) on

  • This was the most significant rewrite of vocational education legislation since 1963.

  • Two broad themes

    • Accessibility to all persons

    • Improve the quality


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Carl Perkins Act (1984) on

  • Fifty-seven (57) percent of state funds were allocated to special populations - vocational education was to be accessible to everyone

    • handicapped (10%)

    • disadvantaged (10%)

    • adult retraining (12%)

    • single parents & homemakers (8 1/2%)

    • sex bias & stereotyping (3 1/2%)

    • incarcerated (1%)


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Carl Perkins Act (1984) on

  • Forty-three (43) percent of state funds were allocated for program improvement

    • funds were not to be used to maintain existing programs

  • Consumer and Homemaking received special funding but 1/3 had to be spent in economically depressed areas

  • There will be a full time sex equity coordinator and $60,000 is allocated to that


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Perkins II (1990) on

  • The Carl Perkins Act is rewritten

  • Special populations is still a major focus,

  • Money can be used to support existing programs

  • Academic and vocational education was to be integrated

  • Articulation between secondary and post-secondary institutions


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School-to-Work onOpportunities Act (1994)

  • A variety of programs were established for students to get them more involved with the world of work and post-secondary education

  • Grants were given to some states to develop programs

  • This is for all students

  • Funding is temporary


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Perkins III (1998) on

  • This is the legislation vocational education is currently operating under

  • The purpose of this Act is to develop more fully the academic, vocational, and technical skills of secondary students and post-secondary students who elect to enroll in vocational and technical education programs (little emphasis on special populations)

Perkins


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Perkins III (1998) on

  • At the local levels funds can be spent on:

    • strengthening the academic, and vocational and technical skills of students

    • providing students with strong experience in and understanding of all aspects of an industry

    • developing, improving, or expanding the use of technology in vocational and technical education

    • providing professional development programs to teachers, counselors, and administrators


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Perkins III (1998) on

  • conducting evaluations of the vocational and technical education programs ...including how the needs of special populations are being met

  • initiating, improving, expanding, and modernizing quality vocational and technical education programs

  • linking secondary vocational and technical education and post-secondary vocational and technical education, including implementing tech-prep programs.


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Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA– –P.L. 105–220) on

  • Reforms Federal employment, adult education, and vocational rehabilitation programs to create an integrated, "one–stop" system of workforce investment and education activities for adults and youth. Entities that carry out post-secondary vocational and technical education activities assisted under the Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act are mandatory partners in this one–stop delivery system.

  • Title I of WIA authorizes workforce investment programs and activities that are administered by the Employment and Training Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor. Learn more about the implementation of Title I of WIA.


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Conclusion on

  • Legislation for Vocational Education during the past 50 years has been influenced greatly by changing societal and environmental concerns.

  • Federal legislation has often mandated what we are to do.

  • The focus has shifted to helping certain groups of people.


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Key Legislation on

  • Vocational Education Act of 1963

    • Educational Amendments 1968 and 1976

  • Carl Perkins Act I (1984)

  • Carl Perkins Act II (1990)

  • School-to-Work, Opportunities Act (1994)

  • Carl Perkins Act III (1998)



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Natural-resource-based economic development on

Legislative Mandates for Extension


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Agricultural telecommunications on

youth-at-risk

Renewable resources

Subsistence farming on Native American reservations

Establish and operate centers of rural technology

Outreach and assistance for socially disadvantaged farmers

Rural health and safety education

Nutrition education and consumer education

1890 extension work

Legislative Mandates for Extension


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Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act (1990) on

  • Expanded EFNEP

  • Established five regional aquaculture centers for research and Extension activities

  • Repealed previous solar energy provisions


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Nutrition and family education on

Urban gardening

Pest management

Farm safety and rural health

Rural development

Pesticide impact assessment

Groundwater quality

Financially stressed and/or dislocated farmers

Food safety

Legislative Mandates for Extension

Various minor amendments and laws have mandated that Extension work in the following areas:


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Food and Agriculture Act (1977) on

  • A Major Farm Bill

  • Authorized $260 million for Extension

  • Authorized agricultural and forestry extension activities at 1890 institutions

    • 4% of Smith-Lever Funds must go to 1890 institutions

    • Extension leaders of 1862 and 1890 institutions are to develop a comprehensive state-wide plan for extension


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Food and Agriculture Act (1977) on

  • Added the use of solar energy with respect to agriculture and solar energy demonstration projects

  • Established a national food and human nutrition research and education program

  • Required the secretary of agriculture to evaluate the Extension Service by 1979


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Food and Agriculture Act (1977) on

  • Directed the secretary to assist the Agency for International Development (AID) with agricultural research and extension in developing countries

  • Established a National Agricultural Research and Extension Users Advisory Board


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Renewable Resources onExtension Act (1978)

  • Provided for educational programs concentrating on renewable resources, which includes fish and wildlife management, range management, timber management, and watershed management, as well as forest and range-based outdoor recreation, trees and forests in urban areas, and trees and shrubs in shelter belts.


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Food Security Act (1985) on

  • A major farm bill

  • Provided grants to upgrade 1890 institutions’ extension facilities

  • Made several technical amendments to fine tune past farm bills


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Agriculture and Food Act (1981) on

  • A Major Farm Bill

  • Authorized appropriations for Extension programs (including 1890 programs)

  • Provided for the employment and training of professionals and paraprofessional aides to engage in nutrition education of low-income families.


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Agriculture and Food Act (1981) on

  • Authorized aquaculture extension work

  • Authorized rural development programs and small farm extension programs

  • Authorized the secretary of agriculture to conduct an annual evaluation of agricultural research, extension and teaching programs.


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Sea Grant Program (1966) on

  • The National Sea Grant Collegeand Program Act

    • Established a program (under the Dept. of Commerce) to provide for applied research, formal education and extension for development of marine and Great Lake resources. About 2/3 of the states involved have incorporated these activities in the extension service.


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FAIR Act (1996) on

  • Our current farm bill is titled the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act.

    • Some people call it the Freedom to Farm Act.

  • Title VIII contains provisions for Research, Extension, and Education

    • However, because other sections of the bill were so controversial little attention was paid to this section of the bill. Most extension related items were merely extended. However, there were a few new twists.

  • It contains provisions for extension, but for the first time has language for secondary agricultural education.


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FAIR Act (1996) on

  • Authority for secondary and 2-year post secondary education in agriscience and agribusiness are added to the Secretary's food and agricultural education authorities

    • This was an attempt to transfer national leadership for secondary agricultural education to USDA from USDE

    • It partially succeeded, language is present in the bill authorizing it--but there is no money to do it, so nothing has happened


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FAIR Act (1996) on

  • Even though the national leadership for agricultural education did not move (one representative in the house effectively blocked the move) a $500,000 challenge grant program to improve secondary agricultural education has been established under authority of the USDA.

    • USDE provides national leadership for agricultural education but USDA is providing funds to improve the program


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FAIR Act (1996) on

  • A National Research, Education, and Economics Advisory Board is established. (This 30-member advisory board replaces three separate advisory committees)


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FAIR Act (1996) on

  • There were provisions in the act related to:

    • Native American extension programs

    • 1890 extension programs

    • Appropriations for the Extension Service

  • Other provisions of the Act contain language reducing price supports for many agricultural commodities

  • The Fund for Rural America was created to enhance community development


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Smith-Lever Amendment (1980) on

  • Inserted references to rural energy in Section 2.


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Smith-Lever Amendment (1985) on

  • Added language that the Extension Service give “…instruction and practical demonstrations of existing or improved practices or technologies.”

  • Authorized Extension to enter into agreements with private organizations and individuals. (in other words extension could accept money from the private sector)

  • Improve 1890s extension facilities


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Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act (1990) on

  • A major farm bill

  • Directed the Extension Service to catalogue the federal, state, and local laws and regulations that govern the handling of unused or unwanted agricultural chemicals and agricultural chemical containers.

    • Educational materials regarding this were to be developed.


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Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act (1990) on

  • Charged the Extension Service with teaching composting

  • Expanded natural resources educational programs

  • Established a water quality coordination program

  • Provided for the assistance for the control of weeds and pests


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National Forest Dependent Rural Communities Economic Diversification Act (1990)

  • Directed the Extension Service to provide training and educational programs in rural communities that are economically dependent upon forest resources in an attempt to diversify the economic base of the community.


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Rural Development Act (1972) Diversification Act (1990)

  • Title V impacted Extension

  • Authorized rural developmentand small-farm extension programs

  • Administration of programs to be part of Extension

  • Established State Rural Development Advisory Councils


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National Agricultural Research, Extension and Teaching Act (1994)

  • Established extension education programs on Native American reservations

  • Provided technical assistance and training in subsistence agriculture to Native Americans and Alaskan natives


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