The Market Revolution. The Rise of Interchangeable Parts. Remember the story of Chauncey Jerome Started as an apprentice for a master clockmaker Started on company by age of 24 and realized he could mass produce clocks by using interchangeable parts. Prices dropped from $20 to $2.
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The Market Revolution
Remember the story of Chauncey Jerome
Started as an apprentice for a master clockmaker
Started on company by age of 24 and realized he could mass produce clocks by using interchangeable parts.
Prices dropped from $20 to $2
A.Situation at outset of nineteenth century
1.Market revolution already underway
2.Widespread isolation from markets
a. Reasons for
b. Young Lincoln’s illustration
a. Toll roads; “turnpikes”
i. Erie Canal
ii. Competing canal projects
The National Road – Cumberland, Md. To Vandalia, Ill. 1818 - 1839
The Steamboat – 1807 Robert Fulton – The Clermont traveled up the Hudson River – Why important?
Later will help improve transportation on the Mississippi R.
Canals- To carry corn and wheat and manufactured goods – Canal system
Robert Fulton & the Steamboat
1st major engineering feat in America.
Supported by the New York City Merchants, Gov. DeWitt Clinton, and the tax payers.
Moved millions of cubic yards of dirt, quarry rocks and build locks to raise and lower boats
Erie Canal System
The Erie Canal, 1820s
Brought prosperity to central and western New York
Towns and industries developed along the route
Led to a canal building boom
In 1830 the first American-built locomotives were put into regular operation on the Baltimore and Ohio, Charleston and Hamburg, and Mohawk and Hudson railroads
Vested interests, including turnpike and bridge companies, stagecoaches, ferries, and canals, sought laws to prohibit trains from carrying freight
After 1830 that railroads were destined to become the nation's chief means of moving freight.
During the 1830s, construction companies laid down 3,328 miles of track, roughly equal to all the miles of canals in the country.
With an average speed of 10 miles an hour, railroads were faster than other vehicles and could travel in any season.
The transportation revolution sharply reduced the cost of shipping goods to market and stimulated agriculture and industry.
New roads, canals, and railroads speeded the pace of commerce and strengthened ties between the East and West.
During the 1790s, it took 3 weeks for a letter to travel from New York to Cincinnati or Detroit and 4 weeks to arrive in New Orleans.
In 1799 it took 1 week for news of George Washington's death to reach New York City from Virginia.
A decade and a half later, it still took 49 days for word of the peace treaty ending the War of 1812 to reach New York from London.
As early as the 1720s, it was known that electricity could be conducted along a wire to convey messages
Iit was not until 1844 that an American artist and inventor named Samuel F. B. Morse demonstrated the practicality of the telegraph and devised a workable code for sending messages
a. Opening of interior to settlement, commerce
b. Lower transportation costs
c. Spread of instant, long-distance communication
d. Linkage of western farmers to distant markets
1.Pace and magnitude
2. Contributing factors
a. Industrial demand for cotton
b. Invention of cotton gin
c. Opening of Deep South to white settlement
3.Revitalization and spread of plantation slavery
a. Growth of domestic slave trade
b. Consequences for slaves
c. Consequences for South’s social and economic
Commercialization of northwest farming
2. Transportation networks
3.Availability of credit
4.Improved farm machinery
Growth of cities
1.Place on western frontier
2.Pace of growth
From craft production to mass production
1.Decline of artisan tradition
a. Larger workshops
b. Subdivision of tasks
c. Increased supervision
Chicago – fastest growing boom town
St. Louis – 2nd fastest growing boom town
Individuals efforts to make industrial changes
Leads to a new economic era, but also led to class-divided society
Take semi-skilled workers and teach the employee a specific task.
No longer a master cobbler in shoe factories, but mass production of product.
Leads to lower prices.
British government forbade anyone migrating to the America’s who were textile mechanics .
Slater comes to the U.S. in 1789 having memorized Richard Arkwright's spinning frame plans.
Worked with Moses Brown in Providence Rhode Island.
Before machinery, thread was spun by unmarried women, orphan girls, and widows with no prospects for remarriage. Thus the term for unmarried women became “spinster”
Francis Cabot Lowell went to England and stole the best of the ideas of the British Factory System
Opens factories in Waltham, Massachusetts
Built the largest and fastest mill in the world.
To lower prices, recruit farm girls and women to work in the mill
Provide boarding houses and cultural activities
Strict curfews and prohibition of alcohol
Work 12 hours a day, 6 days a week. Most sent money home to help the family
Created a competitive textile industry
Oh! isn't it a pity, such a pretty girl as IShould be sent to the factory to pine away and die?Oh! I cannot be a slave, I will not be a slave,For I'm so fond of liberty,That I cannot be a slave.
We must leave our looms. We are daughters of free men and are being forced to work under conditions that approach slavery. Do we need this money so badly that we will submit to these inhumane working conditions while this aristocracy of mill owners lives off the profits of our sweat? Are we not entitled to reasonable breaks in our toil to eat our meals as decent people do - not racing to our boardinghouses and bolting our food like piglets at the trough? And is it not reasonable to limit the workday to ten hours so we have time in the evenings to improve our minds as we were promised? WE must prevent our sex from being made into living machines to do the bidding of incorporated aristocrats and reduced to a sum for their services hardly sufficient to keep soul and body together. The mill managers have been deaf to our petitions and our rallies. They will only hear us when the factories are stilled by workers leaving their looms to secure their dignity and their rights
i. Large concentrations of workers
ii. Centralized supervision
iii. Water power
iv. Power-driven machinery
i. Steam power
ii. Widening range of locations
iii. Widening range of goods
iv. Interchangeable parts
v. Standardized products
i. Concentration of early industry in New England
ii. Small-scale manufacturing elsewhere in North
iii. Minimal industrialization in South
1.Sharpening of line between work time and leisure time
2.From labor’s “price” to labor’s “wage”
3.Early aversion of working men to wage labor
4.Women at Lowell
New Urban Poor
By 1840 half of the native born freemen were working for others
They had money for food and rent and not for much
Lived in slums amid great squalor and vermin
Mass consumption of alcohol added to the squalor
1.Flow of (Push Pull Factors)
a. Access to jobs and land in North
b. Displacement of peasants and craft workers in Europe
c. Advances in long-distance travel
d. Appeal of American freedoms
e. Irish potato famine
Rise of Nativism
a. Chapter in ongoing American anxiety over immigration
b. Perception of Irish as subversive to ideals of democratic republic
c. Anti-immigrant initiatives
ii. Electoral campaigns
Large rise of Catholicism
Leads to Nativism
Protestantism worried about this
Samuel Morse wrote books about the conspiracy of the Catholic Church
Boston – Burning of convents
Philadelphia – Riots when the Catholic Bishop persuaded the schools to add a Catholic Bible along with the Protestant Bible
Blamed Immigrants for job losses among the poor Protestants
Founding of the Know Nothing Party
1.Corporate charters – investors and directors are not liable for corporate debt
2.Charters as contracts
3.Rejection of state-sponsored monopoly
4. Support for state-sponsored competition
6.Exculpation of companies for property damage
7.Affirmation of employer power at workplace
8.Criminalization of strikes
Competition and material advancement as measures of
1.The “self-made man”
Beneficiaries of market revolution
1.Wealthy bankers, merchants, industrialists, planters
Discriminatory barriers to opportunity
a. Forms – could practice as an artisan.
b. Impetus behind – thought they would work for less
c. Impact on black status downward spiral economically.
d. The West?
1.Decline of home as realm of economic production
2.The “cult of domesticity”
a. Separate spheres
b. Distinctive ideals of femininity and masculinity
a. Limited rights and options
b. Meager terms of labor
a. Domestic respectability
b. Freedom from household labor
1.Acquisitiveness as threat to public good
2.Cycle of boom and bust
4.Widening inequalities of living standards
5.Erosion of craft skills
6.Specter of wage dependency; “wage slavery”