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New SA Training Topic 10: Software Management. Common aspects of software management Everyone needs software What does software installation require? Files added or updated Directory services updates (e.g., changes to /etc/services, new DNS aliases)

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New sa training topic 10 software management
New SA TrainingTopic 10: Software Management

  • Common aspects of software management

    • Everyone needs software

    • What does software installation require?

      • Files added or updated

      • Directory services updates (e.g., changes to /etc/services, new DNS aliases)

      • Becoming accessible to users (e.g., showing up in a Start Menu, or in a user's PATH)

    • Localization (i.e., differences in system as shipped by the vendor vs. what your organization needs locally).

      • Install it yourself

      • Give list of packages to third party and pay them to install it


Software management cont
Software Management (cont.)

  • Managing change

    • Inventory (i.e., what do you have?)

    • Versioning your build

    • Rogue users and departments

    • Testing

    • Make changes reversible (n.b. undoable and reversible aren’t the exact same concepts).

      • "reversible" means that you can do some well-defined set of steps to both do an operation forwards, as well as backwards

      • "undoable" means you can get back to the original state, but may require a much more cumbersome process


Software management cont1
Software Management (cont.)

  • Managing change (continued)

    • Revision control – policy and process

    • Software location policies (client vs. server, which directories/drives are for user software, etc)

    • Interactive installation vs. automatic installation

    • Timing of installation and updates (vendor driven vs. SA driven vs. user driven)


Software management cont2
Software Management (cont.)

  • Fat clients vs. thin clients (with fat servers)

    • Question: one old rationale for thin clients was the high cost of disks. Now that disks are cheaper, some argue that fat client is better. What other factors need to be considered in making a decision between fat and thin client?


Windows specifics
Windows Specifics

  • Registry and system folder combine to encourage fat client

  • Microsoft encourages fat client installation

  • DLL Hell (different applications needing different versions of core DLLs)

  • Current methods for installation rely on GPO (Group Policy Object)


Windows specifics cont
Windows Specifics (cont.)

  • Three ways of Installing Software using AD

    • Publishing applications (make available for end users to install)

    • Assigning applications to computers (installs onto system)

    • Assigning applications to users (installs desktop and/or Start Menu shortcuts, but the first use actually does the install)


Windows specifics cont1
Windows Specifics (cont.)

  • .msi Windows Installer Database

  • .msp Windows Installer Patch

  • .mst Windows Installer Transform

  • .zap Zero Administration Package

  • WinINSTALL LE (and similar products) can be used for packaging software that does not provide a native installer


Windows specifics cont2
Windows Specifics (cont.)

  • Other ways of installing software

    • Copy files locally and update desktop and/or Start Menu

    • Copy files onto server, and update desktop and/or Start Menu

    • Run vendor-supplied installation package (often just like Assigning to computers, but may not be if the package doesn't update the list of installed software).


Windows install exercise
Windows Install Exercise

  • When would we want to “Publish” software?

  • When would we want to “Assign” to a User?

  • When would we want to “Assign” to a Computer?

  • Are there other ways of installing software beyond what we have already discussed?

  • Let’s take a look at how this is done in a Group Policy!


Linux specifics
Linux Specifics

  • Unix world often thin client and fat server

  • Some vendors have packaging solutions

  • Traditionally:

    • Download source (assume it's src.tgz)

    • gunzip -c src.tgz | tar xvf -

    • cd src

    • read README

    • read INSTALL

    • edit Makefile

    • edit source code

    • make

    • make install


Linux specifics cont
Linux Specifics (cont.)

  • More recently, it's:

    • Download source (assume it's src.tgz)

    • gunzip -c src.tgz | tar xvf –

    • cd src

    • ./configure

    • make

    • make install

  • Upgrade? Symbolic links to provide canonical names.

  • Uninstall? Who would ever do that?


Linux specifics cont1
Linux Specifics (cont.)

  • RedHat uses rpm

    • rpm –ivh package (install, verbose, w/hashes)

    • rpm –qa (query for all installed packages)

    • rpm –ql package (list all files in a package)

    • rpm -qi package (provide package “info”)

    • rpm -Uvh package (upgrade, verb/hashes)

    • rpm -e package (erase)

  • Lack of ability to build programs from source may hinder your growth as an SA. Also, some experience with C (or C++) can be important, as there may be times when you are asked to debug code issues (in the form of buggy software from vendors, on both Windows and Unix).


Linux install exercise
Linux Install Exercise

  • Let’s look at RPM

  • Install from source?


Updating and managing software
Updating and Managing Software

  • Windows

    • Widowsupdate / autoupdate

    • Officeupdate

    • SUS/WSUS

    • SMS/System Center

  • Let’s look at Windows Update & WSUS


Updating and managing cont
Updating and Managing (cont.)

  • RedHat

    • RedHat Network / up2date

    • RHN Proxy

  • Let’s look at RHN


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