The Special Senses. Dr. Walid Daoud Assistant Professor. The Special Senses. They are highly specialized sense organs: 1- Vision. 2- Hearing. 3- Taste. 4- Olfaction. 5- Touch. Anatomy of The Eye. The eye is the sense organ of vision. A globe-shape organ (3 layers):
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The Special Senses
Dr. Walid Daoud
They are highly specialized sense organs:
The eye is the sense organ of vision.
A globe-shape organ (3 layers):
- Sclera: outermost fibrous layer.
- Choroid: middle layer vascular layer.
- Cornea. - Ciliary muscle.
- Aqueous humor. - Vitreous humor.
- Anterior chamber. - Optic nerve.
- Posterior chamber. - Optic disc.
1- Eye lids.
2- Lacrimal glands.
4- Lacrimal canaliculi.
The ear is the sense organ of hearing.
1- External ear:
. Auricle or ear pinna.
. Ear canal.
. Tympanic membrane or ear drum.
2- Middle ear:
. 3 ossicles: malleus, incus and stapes.
3- Inner ear:
. Cochlea, semicircular canal, vestibule.
Errors of refraction (ametropia):
Cataract is an opacity that forms on the lens or its capsule leading to loss of vision.
Cataract removal either by:
Or 2- Intracapsular cataract extraction.
Glaucoma is an increase in the intraocular pressure due to atrophy of optic nerve and may result in blindness.
- Surgery: paracentesis of the cornea.
The eyes turn from the normal position and are not aimed in the same direction.
It is infection of the middle ear:
Treatment is by analgesics, antibiotics or myrigotomy.
It is hardening of spongy bone around the oval window and the stapes is unable to move the oval window (ankylosis) causing hearing loss.
Treated by stapedectomy.
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