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The Special Senses. Dr. Walid Daoud Assistant Professor. The Special Senses. They are highly specialized sense organs: 1- Vision. 2- Hearing. 3- Taste. 4- Olfaction. 5- Touch. Anatomy of The Eye. The eye is the sense organ of vision. A globe-shape organ (3 layers):

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The special senses

The Special Senses

Dr. Walid Daoud

Assistant Professor


The special senses1
The Special Senses

They are highly specialized sense organs:

1- Vision.

2- Hearing.

3- Taste.

4- Olfaction.

5- Touch


Anatomy of the eye
Anatomy of The Eye

The eye is the sense organ of vision.

A globe-shape organ (3 layers):

- Sclera: outermost fibrous layer.

- Choroid: middle layer vascular layer.

  • - Retina: innermost layer nervous layer.


Anatomy of the eye1
Anatomy of The Eye

- Cornea. - Ciliary muscle.

- Aqueous humor. - Vitreous humor.

- Anterior chamber. - Optic nerve.

- Posterior chamber. - Optic disc.

- Iris.

- Pupil.

- Lens.


The front of the eye
The Front of The Eye

1- Eye lids.

2- Lacrimal glands.

3- Canthi.

4- Lacrimal canaliculi.


Anatomy of the ear
Anatomy of The Ear

The ear is the sense organ of hearing.

1- External ear:

. Auricle or ear pinna.

. Ear canal.

. Tympanic membrane or ear drum.

2- Middle ear:

. 3 ossicles: malleus, incus and stapes.

3- Inner ear:

. Cochlea, semicircular canal, vestibule.


Disorders of the eye
Disorders of The Eye

Errors of refraction (ametropia):

1- Myopia.

2- Hypermetropia.

3- Astigmatism.


Disorders of the eye1
Disorders of The Eye

Cataracts

Cataract is an opacity that forms on the lens or its capsule leading to loss of vision.

Cataract removal either by:

1- Cryoextraction.

Or 2- Intracapsular cataract extraction.


Disorders of the eye2
Disorders of The Eye

Glaucoma

Glaucoma is an increase in the intraocular pressure due to atrophy of optic nerve and may result in blindness.

Treatment:

- Miotics.

- Surgery: paracentesis of the cornea.

partial iridectomy

iridodialysis.


Disorders of the eye3
Disorders of The Eye

Strabismus

The eyes turn from the normal position and are not aimed in the same direction.

- Exotropia.

- Esotropia.


Disorders of the ear
Disorders of The Ear

Otitis Media

It is infection of the middle ear:

- Otodynia.

- Otopyorrhea.

- Myringorrhexis.

Treatment is by analgesics, antibiotics or myrigotomy.


Disorders of the ear1
Disorders of The Ear

Otosclerosis

It is hardening of spongy bone around the oval window and the stapes is unable to move the oval window (ankylosis) causing hearing loss.

Treated by stapedectomy.








Answer worksheets 1 6
Answer Worksheets 1-6

Page 314 - 323


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