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Note to teachers: There are 11 questions in the activity. Instruct the students to write both the letter of the correct answer AND the sentence. Writing the sentence will help the students understand parallel structure than if they simply writes the letter.

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Note to teachers: There are 11 questions in the activity.

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Note to teachers there are 11 questions in the activity

  • Note to teachers:

  • There are 11 questions in the activity.

  • Instruct the students to write both the letter of the correct answer AND the sentence.

  • Writing the sentence will help the students understand parallel structure than if they simply writes the letter.

  • Instruct the students to also underline the parts of the sentence that are parallel.

  • It is possible to break this into two days or to shorten the activity.

  • Be sure that students answer at least the first 6 questions. After question 4, there are 2 slides with tips related to the students’ own writing.

  • There are “pointer” slides (entitled “Remember”) beginning with slide #35. It is important that the students read these.

  • After the pointer slides, there are more questions to reinforce the concept.


Parallel structure

Parallel Structure

Bostrom High School

English Department

Ms. Howard


What is parallel structure

What Is Parallel Structure?

  • Parallel construction (or structure) means that a pair or series of items have the same form.

  • The usual way to join parallel structures is with the use of coordinating such as and or or.


Think about it

Think about it….

  • Make sure each item in a series has the same structure.

  • Not parallel: Superbugs are adapting, spreading, and kill thousands.

  • Parallel: Superbugs are adapting, spreading, and killing thousands.


Note to teachers there are 11 questions in the activity

  • Superbugs are adapting, spreading, and kill thousands.

    • Notice that two of the verbs in the series end in –ing, but the third (“kill”) does not. (Not parallel)

  • Superbugs are adapting, spreading, and killing thousands.

    • All three of the verbs in the series end in –ing.(Parallel)


Click on the link

Click on the link:

  • Parallel Structure Rap


B a l a n c e d

B-A-L-A-N-C-E-D

  • Do you have a better idea about parallel structure now?

  • Parallel structure makes sure that your writing is balanced.


Do you see the difference

Do you see the difference?

Not Parallel:Mary likeshiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle.

Parallel:Mary likes hiking, swimming, and riding a bicycle.


Can you see the difference

Can you see the difference?

Not Parallel:The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and in a detailed manner.

Parallel:The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and thoroughly.


You try it

You try it!

  • Number you paper from 1 – 11.

  • Read the choices on the slides.

  • Answer A, B, or C.

  • Write the sentence. Underline the elements that are parallel.


1 which one is parallel why

#1. Which one is parallel & why?

  • Justin was excited about inviting friends over, eating a good meal, and to play a game of cards.

  • Justin was excited about inviting friends over, eating a good meal, and to play cards.

  • Justin was excited about inviting friends over, eating a good meal, and playing a game of cards.


1 the correct answer is c because all three verbs end in ing

#1. The correct answer is C because all three verbs end in –ing.

  • Justin was excited about inviting friends over, eating a good meal, and to play a game of cards.

  • Justin was excited about inviting friends over, eating a good meal, and to play cards.

  • Justin was excited about inviting friends over, eating a good meal, and playing a game of cards.


Note to teachers there are 11 questions in the activity

  • Be sure that you write the sentence and underline the elements.

  • For example, for question #1, you would underline the words that are in red.

    • Justin was excited about invitingfriends over, eatinga good meal, and playinga game of cards.


If you answered incorrectly

If you answered incorrectly,

  • Change the answer on your paper.

  • Cross out the elements that are NOT parallel and replace them with the elements that ARE parallel.


2 let s try another which sentence contains parallel structure

#2. Let’s try another! Which sentence contains parallel structure?

  • When the weather outside is cold and starting to get windy, I like to be indoors.

  • When the weather outside is cold and windy, I like to be indoors.

  • When the weather outside is cold and getting windy, I like to be indoors.


2 are these two parts the same hint look at the words in blue

#2. Are these two parts the same? (Hint: Look at the words inblue.)

  • When the weather outside is coldand starting to get windy, I like to be indoors.


2 are these two parts the same

#2. Are these two parts the same?

  • When the weather outside is coldand getting windy, I like to be indoors.


2 are these two parts the same1

#2. Are these two parts the same?

  • When the weather outside is coldandwindy, I like to be indoors.


The correct answer for 2 is b

The correct answer for #2 is B.

  • When the weather outside is cold andstarting to get windy, I like to be indoors.

  • When the weather outside is coldandwindy, I like to be indoors.

  • When the weather outside is cold andgetting windy, I like to be indoors.


3 a typical test question

#3. A typical test question:

  • What is the bestway to revise this sentence?

    • Researchers study superbugs, probe their weaknesses, and they hope to find new treatments.

  • Read the three choices on the next slide, write the letter of the best choice, and explain (in writing) why it is the best choice.


3 write the sentence that is parallel underline the parallel elements

#3. Write the sentence that is parallel & underline the parallel elements.

  • Researchers study superbugs, probe their weaknesses, and they hope to find new treatments.

  • Researchers study superbugs, they probe their weaknesses, and they hope to find new treatments.

  • Researchers study superbugs, probe their weaknesses, and hope to find new treatments.


3 what is the correct answer examine the words in purple red what do you see

#3. What is the correct answer? Examine the words in purple& red. What do you see?

Researchers studysuperbugs, probetheir weaknesses, and they hope to find new treatments.

Researchers studysuperbugs, they probe their weaknesses, and they hope to find new treatments.

Researchers studysuperbugs,probetheir weaknesses, and hopeto find new treatments.


3 you ve got it

#3. You’ve got it!

  • The words in purpleare not balanced; they do not have parallel structure

    • study… probe… they hope

    • study… they probe … they hope

  • The words in redARE balanced; they HAVE parallel structure.

    • study … probe … hope


The correct answer for 3 is

The Correct Answer for #3 is………

Researchers study superbugs, probe their weaknesses, and they hope to find new treatments.

Researchers study superbugs, they probe their weaknesses, and they hope to find new treatments.

Researchers study superbugs, probe their weaknesses, and hope to find new treatments.


4 which one is parallel write the sentence on your paper underline the parallel elements

#4. Which one is parallel? Write the sentence on your paper & underline the parallel elements.

  • I have always enjoyed reading the book more than I have watched the movie version.

  • I have always enjoyed reading the book more than to watch the movie.

  • I have always enjoyed reading the book more than watching the movie.


4 which one is parallel look at the parts

#4. Which one is parallel? Look at the parts.

  • I have always enjoyed reading the book more than I have watched the movie version.

  • I have always enjoyed reading the book more than to watch the movie.

  • I have always enjoyed reading the bookmore than watching the movie.


4 if you said c you are correct

#4. If you said C, you are correct.

  • …reading the book more than I have watched the movie version.

  • …reading the book more than to watch the movie.

  • …reading the book more than watching the movie.

  • Do you see the -ing verbs followed by theand the noun?


Proofreading strategies to try

Proofreading Strategies to Try:

  • Skim your paper, pausing at the words "and" and "or." Check on each side of these words to see whether the items joined are parallel. If not, make them parallel.

  • If you have several items in a list, put them in a column to see if they are parallel.


More proofreading strategies

More proofreading strategies

  • Listen to the sound of the items in a list or the items being compared.

  • Do you hear the same kinds of sounds? For example, is there a series of "-ing" words beginning each item?

  • Or do your hear a rhythm being repeated? If something is breaking that rhythm or repetition of sound, check to see if it needs to be made parallel.


Let s practice some more

Parallel Structure

Let’s practice some more


5 what is the best way to revise sentence a if it is correct as it is choose a

#5. What is the best way to revise sentence A? If it is correct as it is, choose A.

  • Mary tried out for the basketball team, the soccer team, and she went to tryouts for the volleyball team, too.

  • Mary tried out for the basketball team, and the soccer team, and she tried out for the volleyball team.

  • Mary tried out for the basketball team, the soccer team, and the volleyball team.


5 did you choose c

#5. Did you choose C?

  • Mary tried out for the basketball team, the soccer team, and she went to tryouts for the volleyball team, too.

  • Mary tried out for the basketball team, and the soccer team, and she tried out for the volleyball team.

  • Mary tried out for the basketball team,the soccer team, and the volleyball team.


6 what is the best way to revise sentence a if it is correct as it is choose a

#6. What is the best way to revise sentence A? If it is correct as it is, choose A.

  • Inez heard the phone ringing, answered it, and is taking a message.

  • Inez heard the phone ringing, went to answer it, and is taking a message.

  • Inez heard the phone ringing, answered it, and took a message.


Note to teachers there are 11 questions in the activity

#6. C is correct because it uses past tense for all three verbs. The other choices contain verb structures that are not parallel.

  • Inez heard the phone ringing, answered it, and is taking a message.

  • Inez heard the phone ringing, went to answer it, and is taking a message.

  • Inez heardthe phone ringing, answeredit, and tooka message.


Some pointers about parallel structure

After the pointers, there are more practice problems.

Some pointers about parallel structure


Remember

Remember!

  • Use Parallel Structure when writing elements in the form of a list or a series.

  • Incorrect: The class valued respect, honesty, and being on timein a teacher.

  • Correct: The class valued respect, honesty, and promptness in a teacher.


Remember1

Remember!

  • Use Parallel Structure when you join elements two or more elements in your sentence.

  • Incorrect: I am allergic to the dog’s hair and how it smells.

  • Correct: I am allergic to the dog’s hair and its smell.


Remember2

Remember!

  • Use Parallel Structure when you are comparing or contrasting element.

  • Incorrect: James enjoys readingmore than to write.

  • Correct: James enjoys readingmore than writing.


Remember3

Remember!

  • Be sure to keep all the elements in a list in the same form.

  • Not Parallel:The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and looking up irregular verbs.

  • Parallel:The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and irregular verbs.


More practice questions

More practice questions

  • Continue with questions 7 – 11.


7 what is the best way to revise sentence a if it is correct as it is choose a

#7. What is the best way to revise sentence A? If it is correct as it is, choose A.

  • In its energy, its lyrics, and the costumes they wore, the band presented a powerful protest.

  • In its energy, its lyrics, and its costumes, the band presented a powerful protest.

  • In its energy, the lyrics, and the costumes they wore, the band presented a powerful protest.


7 b is the correct choice because all three use the possessive pronoun its before the nouns

#7. B is the correct choice because all three use the possessive pronoun its before the nouns.

  • In its energy, its lyrics, and the costumes they wore, the band presented a powerful protest.

  • In its energy, its lyrics, and its costumes, the band presented a powerful protest.

  • In its energy, the lyrics, and the costumes they wore, the band presented a powerful protest.


8 what is the best way to revise sentence a if it is correct as it is choose a

#8. What is the best way to revise sentence A? If it is correct as it is, choose A.

  • The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and to do some warm-up exercises before the game.

  • The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, to not eat too much, and to do some warm-up exercises before the game.

  • The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game.


8 did you choose c

#8. Did you choose C?

  • The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, andto do some warm-up exercises before the game.

  • The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, to not eat too much, and to do some warm-up exercises before the game.

  • The coach told the players that they should geta lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game.


9 review which one is correct

#9. Review: Which one is correct?

  • Running, lifting, and racquetball are three of Ashley’s favorite exercises.

  • Running, lifting, and a spinning class are three of Ashley’s favorite exercises.

  • Running, lifting, and bicycling are three of Ashley’s favorite exercises.


9 do you see the same construction

#9. Do you see the same construction?

  • Running, lifting, and racquetball are three of Ashley’s favorite exercises.

  • Running, lifting, and a spinning class are three of Ashley’s favorite exercises.

  • Running, lifting, and bicycling are three of Ashley’s favorite exercises.


Parallel structure with clauses

Parallel Structure with Clauses!

  • A parallel structure that begins with clauses must keep on with clauses.

  • Changing to another pattern or changing the voice of the verb (from active to passive or vice versa) will break the parallelism.


Example

Example

  • Not Parallel:The salesman expectedthathe would present his product at the meeting, thatthere would be time for him to show his slide presentation, andthat questions would be asked by prospective buyers. (passive)

  • Parallel:The salesman expected that he would present his product at the meeting, that there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, and that prospective buyers would ask him questions.


10 what is the best way to revise sentence a if it is correct as it is choose a

# 10. What is the best way to revise sentence A? If it is correct as it is, choose A.

  • Here is where the cold winds blow and the bears hibernate, where a family’s income is double the national average, and almost everyone lives in a trailer.

  • Here is where the cold winds blow and the bears hibernate, where a family’s income is double the national average, and where almost everyone lives in a trailer.

  • Here is where the cold winds blow and the bears hibernate, a family’s income is double the national average, and where almost everyone lives in a trailer.


10 did you choose b do you see the three where clauses

# 10. Did you choose B? Do you see the three where clauses?

  • Here is where the cold winds blow and the bears hibernate, wherea family’s income is double the national average, and almost everyone lives in a trailer.

  • Here is wherethe cold winds blow and the bears hibernate, wherea family’s income is double the national average, andwherealmost everyone lives in a trailer.

  • Here is where the cold winds blow and the bears hibernate, a family’s income is double the national average, and wherealmost everyone lives in a trailer.


11 here s a challenge for you

# 11. Here’s a challenge for you!

  • Is this parallel? The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems in a careless manner, and his motivation was low.


11 see the difference

# 11. See the difference?

  • The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waiteduntil the last minute to study for the exam, completedhis lab problems in a careless manner, and his motivation was low.(not parallel)

  • The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waiteduntil the last minute to study for the exam, completedhis lab problems in a careless manner, and lackedmotivation. (parallel)


Congratulations

Congratulations!

  • You are now an expert on parallel structure.

  • If you pay attention to parallel structure in your writing, it will be more clear, more fluent, and more effective.


Additional practice

Additional Practice

  • http://english-grammar-review.com/

  • Go to: Parallel Construction


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