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Week 6. Sustainability in Development. Sustainability and Sustainable Development. Concept of “sustainability” recently associated with tourism development initiatives and efforts. (French, 1992; Long & Nuckolls, 1992)

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Week 6

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Week 6

Week 6

Sustainability in Development

Sustainability and sustainable development

Sustainability and Sustainable Development

  • Concept of “sustainability” recently associated with tourism development initiatives and efforts. (French, 1992; Long & Nuckolls, 1992)

  • “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)

Sustainable tourism development

Sustainable Tourism Development

Involves management of all resources in such a way that “economic, social, and aesthetic needs [are fulfilled] while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity, and life support systems.” (Inskeep, 1991)



  • Intangible Factors

  • Tangible Factors

Intangible factors

Intangible Factors

  • How people behave?



  • Different Stakeholders

Role of stakeholders

Role of Stakeholders


Sustainable tourism policy

Langkawi Geopark Conservation

Community :

Community based sustainable tourism programme

 An alternative model of tourism development

 The concerns of land tenure, equitable access to resources, cultural integrity, gender sensitivity, and community-based resource management.

Others ????

Conservation of natural resources case of langkawi

Conservation of Natural ResourcesCase of Langkawi

Langkawi has a high potential for conservation of

 biodiversity

 geodiversity.

Langkawi Research Centre:

Geology & Lanscape

Biology & Marine

Culture & Local Tradition

A= Tongkat AliB= Pepanggil Langkawi’

C= Penerahan piangguD= crab-eating macaques

E= Spectackled leaf monkey

F= Calotes versicolorSource : Assoc Prof. Norhayati Ahmad, UKM

Conservation of natural resources case of langkawi cont

Conservation of Natural ResourcesCase of Langkawi -cont

  • Conservation of nature in Langkawi and Malaysia, in general, is based on the Forest Reserve concept.

  • This encompasses forests that cannot be exploited for:

     timber (non-productive forest, forest that can be exploited for timber,  recreation (production forest).

  • The National Forestry Department has declared three protected forest areas in Langkawi as Geoforest parks:

    the geological components within the park area

     the balanced protection of geological and biological heritage.

     promote the area for education and recreation purposes.

Eagle feeding

Eagle Feeding

From this

From this……….

To these coral reef deterioration

Unsustainable tourism: Scuba divers and snorkelers are destroying reefs especially in mass tourism destinations such as Thailand, Florida and the Cayman Islands.

To these………Coral Reef Deterioration



Damage to coral reefs as result of boating, reef walking & collection of shells & ornamental fish for the tourist market;

With the exception of protected areas, most coral reef areas along the coast are under pressure fromover-exploitation

Pollution from coastal urban centres, including Mombassa, due to poor waste management and inadequate or non-existent waste disposal facilities & infrastructure

Unplanned development of coastal hotels with major impacts on shorelines & coastalhabitats

Tangible factors

Tangible Factors

  • Physical Surroundings



Week 6


Generally good environmental management policies in place & tourism development strategy document, emphasis on sustainable tourism, but…

Sale of coral & shells to tourists

Increased organic pollution in the vicinity of coastal hotels

Beach erosion caused by hard structures of hotels

Danger of carrying capacity being exceeded in some areas (La Digue, Beau Vallon, etc.)

Tourism one of the main root causes of modification & loss of habitats

Controlling mechanism

Controlling Mechanism

  • EIA

    Environmental Impact Assessment

    (Will be discussed in the next lecture)

Week 6



Week 6

Our Commitment to

Sustainable Tourism ??

Week 6

Purposes of the assignment areto offer you an opportunity to penetrate fairly deeply into an issue or theme of tourism studiesto help you coordinate and consolidate concepts and information obtained from the readings and the lectures through critical and practical applications

Coursework:A Project/essay Oriented Assignment

Week 6

* You are expected to follow 2 specific steps when conducting this project:Select, determine, and report your project topic with a written summary (a minimum of 50 words) of your general thoughts about the topic of your choice. This 50-word summary MUST be submitted to me no later than 9 September 2009 (Wednesday) Hand in your final project (a minimum of 2500 words exclusive of references and appendices--if there are any--in single-space presentation on A4 paper). Your project will be due on week 13 (during the presentation day)

TWO Steps of work:

Week 6

Current StatusBenefitThe use of natural resource/Sustainability issueImpact : Source Type of Activities (Physical Change/ Mechanical action ?)  Resource Overuse/MisuseAction taken or not ?Recommendation……..

Among other things that you could consider:

Any questions if no then have a nice weekend

Any Questions?If no then Have a nice weekend….

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