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The Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics at the University of Illinois. P. Krein Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Introduction. The Grainger CEME began operation in 1999. Became permanent in 2003. Expansion of support in 2007.

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The grainger center for electric machinery and electromechanics at the university of illinois l.jpg

The Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

P. KreinDepartment of Electrical and Computer Engineering


Introduction l.jpg
Introduction Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

  • The Grainger CEME began operation in 1999.

  • Became permanent in 2003.

  • Expansion of support in 2007.

  • Perhaps the nation’s largest endowed program in an electrical engineering specialty area.

  • Research leverages the broader program in power and energy systems.

  • Emphasis on very long termfundamental advances.


Motivation l.jpg
Motivation Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

  • Electric machines consume nearly 2/3 of all global electricity.

  • They are nearly universal in electricity production.

  • Major growth in transportation, in small portable devices, in wind and wave generation, . . .

  • Many designs are old, both in thesense of predating computertools and modern manufacturingmethods, and in the sense of notmaking use of power electronics.


Design l.jpg
Design Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

  • Magnetic machines:

    • Force density is J x B.

    • For steel machines, B is determined bysaturation.

    • J is thermally limited – copper current density.

  • Some fundamental aspects are clear:

    • Wound-rotor synchronous machines can reach both limits and have stator cooling access.

    • Induction machines can also reach both limits, but rotor cooling is more limited.

    • Permanent magnet machines generally have lower flux limits.

    • Reluctance machines do not decouple the effects, so the force density is lower.


Design5 l.jpg
Design Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

  • Future design has four key attributes:

    • Fast, accurate electromagnetic design that can be used repeatedly.

    • Incorporation of thermal and mechanicalanalysis.

    • Materials and manufacturing as designobjectives rather than constraints.

    • System-level designs: controls and loads.

  • In combination, these give crucial results:

    • Unlikely that one type of machine is universal

    • Power electronics and sensors are fundamental.

  • Important to recognize that innovations in machines are not necessarily in industrial applications.


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CEME and Predecessor Innovations Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

  • Voltage regulator module: four-phasetwo-stage 48 V/ 2V design: 1993.

  • Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, on-board charger: 1994.

  • Hundred-year solar inverter:2010.


Sample innovations l.jpg
Sample Innovations Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

  • Ripple correlation control

    • Extracts information fromconverter ripple signals

    • Use this information todrive toward an optimum(lowest loss, highest powerdelivery, etc.)

  • Fabrication of inductorsfor monolithic converters

    • Plastic deformation process yieldsinductors with much higher Q than spiral planar constructions

Ripple correlation near MPPfor solar application


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Emerging Topics Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

  • Transportation electrification

    • Drive reliability

    • “Appropriate control” for low-performance loads

    • Delivering extreme peak torques

    • Extensions to off-road, rail, aircraft, and other transportation modes

  • Wind energy conversion

    • Comprehensive mechanical and electrical optimization.

    • Support wide operating ranges.

    • Reliability analysis.

www.doe.gov


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Advanced Power Semiconductors Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

  • Compound materials emerging for power electronics applications.

  • Silicon carbide is being commercialized.

  • Gallium nitride has several advantages compared to SiC.

  • Important in high temperature drive applications.


Materials l.jpg
Materials Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

  • Ferromagnetic materials for machines

    • Emerging Si steels with extreme silicon content

    • Single-crystal manufacturing

    • Nanostructured magnetic materials

  • Heat transfer advances

    • Phase-change heat pipes

    • Immersion methods

    • Optimize total design

  • Materials based on process objectives

Institute of Experimental Materials, Slovakia


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Sample topic areas Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

11

  • Analysis and control

  • Design optimization

  • Modeling and simulation

  • Hybrid cars

  • Electric ships

  • High performance drives

  • Efficiency optimization


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Machine as Metamaterial Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

  • Metamaterials are composites that achieve otherwise implausible properties.

  • Example: induction machine rotor is a ferromagnetic and conductor composite intended to provide an otherwise unavailable combination of conductivity and permeability.

  • The structure also achieves anisotropic conductivity.


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Machine as Metamaterial Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

  • Notice the implications for design:

    • Optimize material properties and geometry.

    • Then determine how to implement properties.

  • Similar arguments for IPM and other machines.

A.O. Smith


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High-Performance Converters Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

  • “Digital switch” fast dc-dc converter control for µP loads.

  • Efficiency enhancement for digital loads, data centers.

  • Inverters that match the operating life of silicon PV panels.

iout (2A/div)

iL (2 A/div)

vout (0.2 V/div)

vout (0.2 V/div)

iout (2A/div)

iL (2 A/div)

“Time-optimal” control

Energy-based real-time digital control


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Drive Control Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

  • Low-sensitivity dynamic methods.

  • Determine the impact of uncertainty.

  • “Appropriate control.”


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Collaborative Network Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

  • The Grainger CEME leads a national collaborative network for machines research:

    • Berkeley

    • Georgia Tech

    • Oregon State

    • Ohio State

    • Purdue

    • Wisconsin


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Electromagnetics (Computation) Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

Control and Circuits (Low-power circuits, hybrid control)

Computer Engineering, CS, and CSL (Smart Grid)

Materials Science (Devices and solar energy)

Chemical Engineering (Fuel cells and carbon reduction)

New ECE building – the largest planned US net-zero-energy facility

Collaboration on campus


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Data Center Power Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

Less than 50% of electric power into a modern data center is delivered to the integrated circuits that do the work.

Efficiency is even lower when considered in terms of data processing per unit of energy.

The relative losses increasecloser to the circuit boards.

Issues:

Chip-level power

Board-level power

Rack-level power

Building-level power

Hightech.lbl.gov


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Opportunities Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

19

  • Plug-in vehicle grid integration, market methods, and storage performance.

  • “Reference designs” for machines.

  • System-level analysis, design.

  • Grid intelligence

  • Motors with “power throttle” capability

  • Power converter drive integration.


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Smart Grid: Customer Choice Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

The conventional grid decouplesconsumer choice and electricity supply.

Several current, emerging, andfuture strategies to improve thesituation:

Time-of-day price signals

Real-time control

Customer-based utility-interactiveappliances

Intelligent real-time metering and monitoring

Greencontrols.wordpress.com


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The Smart Grid Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

General concept of extensive intelligence embedded in the electricity grid.

Two-way data exchange.

Load priority.

Distributed renewables.

Methods to adjust andcontrol capacity.

Methods to give choices to the end user.

www.epri.com


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ICSEG System Scope Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

Solar

Storage

power

Smart Grid

sandbox

Wind

-Flexible and

modular

communication

  • Algorithms

  • Computing

  • Communication

  • Control

  • Trust

Firewall

Main grid

PHEV/Storage


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ICSEG Validation Approach Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

Smart

Grid

Properties

Smart

Grid

Technologies

SmartGrid Validation

Facility

Validation

Technologies


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