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The Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics at the University of Illinois. P. Krein Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Introduction. The Grainger CEME began operation in 1999. Became permanent in 2003. Expansion of support in 2007.

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the grainger center for electric machinery and electromechanics at the university of illinois

The Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics at the University of Illinois

P. KreinDepartment of Electrical and Computer Engineering

introduction
Introduction
  • The Grainger CEME began operation in 1999.
  • Became permanent in 2003.
  • Expansion of support in 2007.
  • Perhaps the nation’s largest endowed program in an electrical engineering specialty area.
  • Research leverages the broader program in power and energy systems.
  • Emphasis on very long termfundamental advances.
motivation
Motivation
  • Electric machines consume nearly 2/3 of all global electricity.
  • They are nearly universal in electricity production.
  • Major growth in transportation, in small portable devices, in wind and wave generation, . . .
  • Many designs are old, both in thesense of predating computertools and modern manufacturingmethods, and in the sense of notmaking use of power electronics.
design
Design
  • Magnetic machines:
    • Force density is J x B.
    • For steel machines, B is determined bysaturation.
    • J is thermally limited – copper current density.
  • Some fundamental aspects are clear:
    • Wound-rotor synchronous machines can reach both limits and have stator cooling access.
    • Induction machines can also reach both limits, but rotor cooling is more limited.
    • Permanent magnet machines generally have lower flux limits.
    • Reluctance machines do not decouple the effects, so the force density is lower.
design5
Design
  • Future design has four key attributes:
    • Fast, accurate electromagnetic design that can be used repeatedly.
    • Incorporation of thermal and mechanicalanalysis.
    • Materials and manufacturing as designobjectives rather than constraints.
    • System-level designs: controls and loads.
  • In combination, these give crucial results:
    • Unlikely that one type of machine is universal
    • Power electronics and sensors are fundamental.
  • Important to recognize that innovations in machines are not necessarily in industrial applications.
ceme and predecessor innovations
CEME and Predecessor Innovations
  • Voltage regulator module: four-phasetwo-stage 48 V/ 2V design: 1993.
  • Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, on-board charger: 1994.
  • Hundred-year solar inverter:2010.
sample innovations
Sample Innovations
  • Ripple correlation control
    • Extracts information fromconverter ripple signals
    • Use this information todrive toward an optimum(lowest loss, highest powerdelivery, etc.)
  • Fabrication of inductorsfor monolithic converters
    • Plastic deformation process yieldsinductors with much higher Q than spiral planar constructions

Ripple correlation near MPPfor solar application

emerging topics
Emerging Topics
  • Transportation electrification
    • Drive reliability
    • “Appropriate control” for low-performance loads
    • Delivering extreme peak torques
    • Extensions to off-road, rail, aircraft, and other transportation modes
  • Wind energy conversion
    • Comprehensive mechanical and electrical optimization.
    • Support wide operating ranges.
    • Reliability analysis.

www.doe.gov

advanced power semiconductors
Advanced Power Semiconductors
  • Compound materials emerging for power electronics applications.
  • Silicon carbide is being commercialized.
  • Gallium nitride has several advantages compared to SiC.
  • Important in high temperature drive applications.
materials
Materials
  • Ferromagnetic materials for machines
    • Emerging Si steels with extreme silicon content
    • Single-crystal manufacturing
    • Nanostructured magnetic materials
  • Heat transfer advances
    • Phase-change heat pipes
    • Immersion methods
    • Optimize total design
  • Materials based on process objectives

Institute of Experimental Materials, Slovakia

sample topic areas
Sample topic areas

11

  • Analysis and control
  • Design optimization
  • Modeling and simulation
  • Hybrid cars
  • Electric ships
  • High performance drives
  • Efficiency optimization
machine as metamaterial
Machine as Metamaterial
  • Metamaterials are composites that achieve otherwise implausible properties.
  • Example: induction machine rotor is a ferromagnetic and conductor composite intended to provide an otherwise unavailable combination of conductivity and permeability.
  • The structure also achieves anisotropic conductivity.
machine as metamaterial13
Machine as Metamaterial
  • Notice the implications for design:
    • Optimize material properties and geometry.
    • Then determine how to implement properties.
  • Similar arguments for IPM and other machines.

A.O. Smith

high performance converters
High-Performance Converters
  • “Digital switch” fast dc-dc converter control for µP loads.
  • Efficiency enhancement for digital loads, data centers.
  • Inverters that match the operating life of silicon PV panels.

iout (2A/div)

iL (2 A/div)

vout (0.2 V/div)

vout (0.2 V/div)

iout (2A/div)

iL (2 A/div)

“Time-optimal” control

Energy-based real-time digital control

drive control
Drive Control
  • Low-sensitivity dynamic methods.
  • Determine the impact of uncertainty.
  • “Appropriate control.”
collaborative network
Collaborative Network
  • The Grainger CEME leads a national collaborative network for machines research:
    • Berkeley
    • Georgia Tech
    • Oregon State
    • Ohio State
    • Purdue
    • Wisconsin
slide17
Electromagnetics (Computation)

Control and Circuits (Low-power circuits, hybrid control)

Computer Engineering, CS, and CSL (Smart Grid)

Materials Science (Devices and solar energy)

Chemical Engineering (Fuel cells and carbon reduction)

New ECE building – the largest planned US net-zero-energy facility

Collaboration on campus

data center power
Data Center Power

Less than 50% of electric power into a modern data center is delivered to the integrated circuits that do the work.

Efficiency is even lower when considered in terms of data processing per unit of energy.

The relative losses increasecloser to the circuit boards.

Issues:

Chip-level power

Board-level power

Rack-level power

Building-level power

Hightech.lbl.gov

opportunities
Opportunities

19

  • Plug-in vehicle grid integration, market methods, and storage performance.
  • “Reference designs” for machines.
  • System-level analysis, design.
  • Grid intelligence
  • Motors with “power throttle” capability
  • Power converter drive integration.
smart grid customer choice
Smart Grid: Customer Choice

The conventional grid decouplesconsumer choice and electricity supply.

Several current, emerging, andfuture strategies to improve thesituation:

Time-of-day price signals

Real-time control

Customer-based utility-interactiveappliances

Intelligent real-time metering and monitoring

Greencontrols.wordpress.com

the smart grid
The Smart Grid

General concept of extensive intelligence embedded in the electricity grid.

Two-way data exchange.

Load priority.

Distributed renewables.

Methods to adjust andcontrol capacity.

Methods to give choices to the end user.

www.epri.com

icseg system scope
ICSEG System Scope

Solar

Storage

power

Smart Grid

sandbox

Wind

-Flexible and

modular

communication

  • Algorithms
  • Computing
  • Communication
  • Control
  • Trust

Firewall

Main grid

PHEV/Storage

icseg validation approach
ICSEG Validation Approach

Smart

Grid

Properties

Smart

Grid

Technologies

SmartGrid Validation

Facility

Validation

Technologies

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