The Biology of Ecosystems. "When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe." John Muir. What would happen if all the lions on an African savanna were killed or removed? Flora and Fauna?.
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"When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe." John Muir
Organisms and Species -- An organism is an individual living thing. A species is a group of organisms that are able to produce fertile offspring and share common genes. For Example: Mr. Black-Organism, Homo Sapiens-Species; Fido-Organism, Canine Domesticus-Species.
Environment consists of what?
All living things (biotic)
All nonliving things (abiotic)
What is the job of a lion?
Control the population of prey
Refining gene traits.
Faster prey will survive
Those with better camouflage will avoid becoming prey
Those who don’t need to move around much more often
How Species Interact With Each other
Natural Selection- only animals that are the fastest, strongest and healthiest are able to live on and reproduce. Thereby increasing desirable gene traits in their offspring
II. Competition - occurs when two or more organisms of the same or different species attempt to use the same limited resources.List examples:
sunlight, scavengers, exotic species, vines (kudzu), Pandas. Can happen even if they never come into contact:(Pollinators and nocturnal and daytime feeders.)
III. Parasitism - the relationship when organisms live in or on another organism without immediately killing the organism. (Gee-- I wonder Why?)
Most organisms are negatively affected by parasites. They may be weakened by parasitic relationships hence making them more vulnerable to predators.List Examples:
Our intestines have millions of bacterium living inside. They help us digest food and produce Vitamin K that aids in blood clotting. We provide living arrangements and food .......they help us digest food.
Remoras are fish that attach themselves to sharks and eat the scraps food that float around a shark when it is eating. The Remora benefits and the shark is neither harmed of helped.
1.All organisms have the ability to produce more offspring than can possibly survive. Ex.: Fish and frogs lay millions of eggs. Most do not survive or there would be millions of fish and frog offspring from one individual.
2. The environment contains things that kill organisms. The environment is often hostile: hot/cold dry/flooded. Predators are common - competition limits resources. Darwin called this a “struggle for existence”
3. Individuals vary in their traits. They may differ in size color, speed, resistance to disease and many other traits. This may be an inherited factor to influence natural selection.
4. Some inherited traits may give individuals an advantage in coping with environmental challenges. This allows them to survive longer and produce more offspring. They are naturally selected for survival
5. More species with advantageous traits have more offspring; each new generation has more offspring with the advantageous traits than the previous generation. Gradually, over many generations, that species evolves by natural selection…
Plants and herbivores - plants cannot move hence they develop toxic responses. Over time the herbivore develops a resistance to the toxicity.