COST C 17 Vienna 8 December 2004 Schlo  Sch nbrunn Fire Risk Improvement Project

COST C 17 Vienna 8 December 2004 Schlo Sch nbrunn Fire Risk Improvement Project PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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COST C 17 Vienna 8 December 2004 Schlo Sch nbrunn Fire Risk Improvement Project

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1. Stewart Kidd, MA, MSc, FIFireE Heritage Loss Prevention Consultant COST C 17 Vienna 8 December 2004 Schloß Schönbrunn Fire Risk Improvement Project

3. Structural Fire Protection of Key Areas: Phase 3 Proposal to Utilise Low Pressure Water Mist

4. This project, which started in 1999 has been undertaken in three parts: 1. An overview of the main problems facing the Palace and how these could best be managed 2. A full risk assessment project and recommendations for ways in which the levels of risk can be reduced and other observations 3. Implementation

5. A Reminder: Managing Fire Safety in Historic Buildings Based on recommendations in Heritage Under Fire (2nd Edition)

6. Each building or institution must have a fire safety policy Managing Fire Safety in Heritage Buildings

7. The institution should appoint a fire safety manager Managing Fire Safety in Heritage Buildings

8. In larger premises, the FSM should be assisted by a full or part-time Fire Safety Officer Managing Fire Safety in Heritage Buildings

9. A fire risk assessment should be undertaken and updated regularly Managing Fire Safety in Heritage Buildings

10. A fire safety manual and a record book should be set up and maintained Managing Fire Safety in Heritage Buildings

11. Automatic fire detection systems of modern design and capability should be introduced Managing Fire Safety in Heritage Buildings

12. Following a full survey, the fire resisting elements of the building should be upgraded Managing Fire Safety in Heritage Buildings

13. Where particular legal requirements exist these must be complied with Managing Fire Safety in Heritage Buildings

14. All staff, including part-timers and volunteers must be trained in all aspects of their role in fire safety Managing Fire Safety in Heritage Buildings

15. Where individual residences or apartments form part of a heritage building, these must form part of the general survey and risk assessment Managing Fire Safety in Heritage Buildings

16. Special, detailed arrangements must be imposed to control and supervise all contractors Managing Fire Safety in Heritage Buildings

17. Managing Fire Safety in Heritage Buildings Special care must be taken when arranging or hosting special events, especially if these involve filming, fireworks or fashion The Risk Assessment will have to be repeated, taking into account the new risks and hazards

18. In larger premises a trained damage limitation team should be set up Managing Fire Safety in Heritage Buildings

19. Managing Fire Safety in Heritage Buildings Regular liaison meetings and exercises with the local fire brigade should take place

20. Consideration should be given to the benefits of sprinkler systems, particularly if compartmentation and segregation of of the building proves difficult or costly Managing Fire Safety in Heritage Buildings

21. A full set of records, drawings, photographs and other information should be stored off-site for use in rebuilding in the event of a fire Managing Fire Safety in Heritage Buildings

22. Risk Assessment Findings

23. Hazards and Problems (1): Roof structures

27. Hazards and Problems (1): Roof structures Voids and cavities

31. Hazards and Problems (1): Voids and cavities Roof structures Fire brigade access to roof spaces

33. Hazards and Problems (1): • Voids and cavities • Roof structures • Fire brigade access to roof spaces Tenancies Un-refurbished areas Electrical wiring Compartmentation

34. Hazards and Problems (2): High value heritage contents

37. Hazards and Problems (2): High value heritage contents Chimneys and flues, wood burning Control of contractors Special functions

39. Impact of Fire (1): Small fire - quickly discovered and contained: Minor damage to single apartment/room Low probability of spread to other levels Minor injury to occupants/visitors Minimal cost/financial loss Minimal smoke damage to neighbouring areas Minor water damage Minor publicity/financial loss

40. Impact of Fire (2): Large fire - delayed discovery; late containment: Major damage to more than one room/contents Probable spread to other levels Loss of 30% of roof Severe smoke damage Significant water damage Serious injury to occupants/firefighters Negative publicity Loss of revenue

41. Recommendations and Conclusions

42. Risk Assessment Findings: Premises are very large, have a complex, structure and are multi-tenanted The location is of paramount importance - nationally and internationally The risks of fire and from fire are high Anything other than a minor incident cannot be tolerated for heritage,life safety and financial reasons

43. Compensating Factors: Highly professional and committed approach to fire safety by senior management ü Staff support and enthusiasm ü Very good housekeeping e.g: work on clearing roof spaces ü Comprehensive structural survey ü Initial work on re-wiring ü High quality new fire detection system ü Collaboration with Vienna fire brigade ü Good on-site water supply ü

44. Conclusions (1): Even with best possible fire brigade response, effective intervention will take 15 - 20 minutes from time of discovery Undiscovered small fires have high probability of spreading High probability of smoke and water damage High possibility of injury

45. Conclusions (2): The probability of losing 30% of the roof is high Even a moderately small fire will do significant damage to heritage fabric Heritage contents will suffer major loss from even a small fire Negative publicity will have serious impact Serious revenue losses will result from enforced closure of even part of the Palace

46. Conclusions (3) Given the presence of the hazards described, it is concluded that the Palace should be classified as: “High Risk” With the consideration of the compensating factors, this can be reduced to: “Above Normal Risk”

47. Risk Reduction (1): The risk can be further reduced by: 1.Upgrading/introducing structural fire barriers and introducing new fire stopping wherever possible 2.Extending the new fire detection systems to the whole Palace 3. Education of tenants, inspections of apartments and control of tenant activities 4. Re-wiring remainder of Palace 5 Installing sprinklers in most vulnerable areas

48. Conclusions Significant work has been done to reduce the risk from fire If the recommendations made are carried out then: 1. The chances of a fire will be reduced 2. If a fire does take place, it will almost certainly be contained 3. If it is not quickly contained then its impact and consequential damage will be minimised

49. Work Done to Date Re-wiring Compartmentation New detection throughout Extensive staff training Improved security and surveillance Formation of Damage Limitation Team Fire Safety Management Policies Control of hazards and good housekeeping Phased introduction of sprinklers

50. Areas Outstanding Roof spaces Tenanted areas in palace Main state rooms (Showrooms) Chapel Other areas ( Wagonberg/Theatre)

51. Work Underway Changes to evacuation system Voice evacuation Further development of DLT Development of internal first strike fire equipment Control and monitoring

52. Priorities Roof Spaces in Palace State Rooms Rationale for fire protection Choices Sprinklers Water Mist - High pressure Water Mist - Low pressure Gas systems

53. Slide 9 This slide illustrates the three key elements required for a fire to occur and develop. These are heat, fuel and oxygen. The removal of one or more of these elements will extinguish the fire. Halon chemical agents extinguish a fire by causing a chemical interference that affects all three elements. Slide 9 This slide illustrates the three key elements required for a fire to occur and develop. These are heat, fuel and oxygen. The removal of one or more of these elements will extinguish the fire. Halon chemical agents extinguish a fire by causing a chemical interference that affects all three elements.

54. Slide 10 This slide illustrates how sprinklers remove the heat element of the triangle by cooling. Slide 10 This slide illustrates how sprinklers remove the heat element of the triangle by cooling.

55. Slide 11 This slide illustrates how CO2 removes the oxygen element of the triangle. Slide 11 This slide illustrates how CO2 removes the oxygen element of the triangle.

56. Slide 12 This slide illustrates how inert gaseous fire suppression systems reduce the amount of oxygen to a level that will not sustain combustion but will sustain life. Slide 12 This slide illustrates how inert gaseous fire suppression systems reduce the amount of oxygen to a level that will not sustain combustion but will sustain life.

57. Slide 13 This slide illustrates how watermist acts to remove heat by cooling and reduce the oxygen level at the flame front by converting the fine watermist droplets to steam. Slide 13 This slide illustrates how watermist acts to remove heat by cooling and reduce the oxygen level at the flame front by converting the fine watermist droplets to steam.

58. What Do We Know About Water? specific heat = 4.18 Kjoules/kg/oC latent heat of vapourisation = 2240 Kjoules/kg expansion on vapourisation = 1620:1 Slide 14 Water is a unique fire fighting media. It is plentiful, cheap and environmentally friendly. It has the ability to absorb high levels of heat and expand 1620 : 1 on vapourisation. These factors rapidly cool surface areas and create a tremendous amount of steam, The steam produced significantly reduces the level of oxygen present in the atmosphere at the flame front.Slide 14 Water is a unique fire fighting media. It is plentiful, cheap and environmentally friendly. It has the ability to absorb high levels of heat and expand 1620 : 1 on vapourisation. These factors rapidly cool surface areas and create a tremendous amount of steam, The steam produced significantly reduces the level of oxygen present in the atmosphere at the flame front.

59. Evaporation (heat extraction) is a function of surface area of droplets Reducing droplet size increases surface area Increase in surface area allows for larger cooling effect for a given flow Slide 15 This slide illustrates how the reduced droplet size of watermist increases the rate of evaporation that in turn speeds up the process of heat extraction. Watermist provides a much wider surface area than conventional sprinklers. The larger the surface area of the droplets the more efficient the watermist becomes in controlling or extinguishing a fire. Slide 15 This slide illustrates how the reduced droplet size of watermist increases the rate of evaporation that in turn speeds up the process of heat extraction. Watermist provides a much wider surface area than conventional sprinklers. The larger the surface area of the droplets the more efficient the watermist becomes in controlling or extinguishing a fire.

60. Volume = Equivalent volume Diameter ‘D’ = 8 x D/2 Surface area ‘S’ = S x 2 (twice surface area) Slide 16 This slide illustrates the formula of volume X diameter of the water droplet X the surface area. This formula demonstrates how the surface area of watermist droplets increases in comparison to the same volume of water from the larger droplets of a sprinkler system. Slide 16 This slide illustrates the formula of volume X diameter of the water droplet X the surface area. This formula demonstrates how the surface area of watermist droplets increases in comparison to the same volume of water from the larger droplets of a sprinkler system.

61. It seems that the smaller the droplet the better But: Droplets need momentum to penetrate the fire plume Slide 17 Science has established that the smaller a droplet is the more efficient it is at controlling fire. However, water droplets need momentum to penetrate the fire plume. Low pressure watermist solves this problem with the addition of some larger water droplets that carry the smaller ones directly to the seat of the fire.Slide 17 Science has established that the smaller a droplet is the more efficient it is at controlling fire. However, water droplets need momentum to penetrate the fire plume. Low pressure watermist solves this problem with the addition of some larger water droplets that carry the smaller ones directly to the seat of the fire.

62. Why Low Pressure ? Low pressure systems deliver a mix of large and small droplets at a lower velocity The few larger drops act as carriers for the smaller droplets Less water volume (and weight !) in roof space for given time Low pressure system can utilise existing tanks and pumps Slide 18 Experience tells us that fire extinguishment improves with direct contact of water droplets Larger droplets are an important part of the operation if ventilation is a factor and class “A” combustibles are present Slide 18 Experience tells us that fire extinguishment improves with direct contact of water droplets Larger droplets are an important part of the operation if ventilation is a factor and class “A” combustibles are present

63. Droplets with high momentum penetrate the fire plume Some larger droplets help to deliver fine droplets to the fire A range of droplet sizes maximises extinguishing efficiency Slide 19 This slide illustrates how the combination of different droplet sizes work together to maximise extinguishing efficiency. The process produces a two and a half dimensional effect that enables the mist to reach and penetrate areas that is beyond the capability of sprinklers which are only one dimensional.Slide 19 This slide illustrates how the combination of different droplet sizes work together to maximise extinguishing efficiency. The process produces a two and a half dimensional effect that enables the mist to reach and penetrate areas that is beyond the capability of sprinklers which are only one dimensional.

64. Minimum operational pressures 7- 8 bar. Temperature ratings for detection: 57°c orange 68°c red 79°c yellow 93°c green Using detector nozzles Slide 23 This slide illustrates the different temperature ratings available for sealed detector nozzles for volume protection. Slide 23 This slide illustrates the different temperature ratings available for sealed detector nozzles for volume protection.

65. Slide 21 This slide illustrates two typical sealed detector nozzles used for volume protection. The mist generator determines the pattern of watermist discharge and the droplet size combination delivered.Slide 21 This slide illustrates two typical sealed detector nozzles used for volume protection. The mist generator determines the pattern of watermist discharge and the droplet size combination delivered.

66. The little nozzles will prevent…

70. Stewart Kidd, MA, MSc, FIFireE Heritage Loss Prevention Consultant COST C 17 Vienna 8 December 2004 Schloß Schönbrunn Fire Risk Improvement Project

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