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Chapter 2 Personality & Values. Individuals & Personality. Personality: Sum total of ways people react and interact with others (set of psychological traits that make each person different). Ques. 1: What are its dimensions? Ques. 2: How is it measured?

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Chapter 2 Personality & Values

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Chapter 2 personality values

Chapter 2Personality & Values

Individuals personality

Individuals & Personality

Personality:Sum total of ways people react and interact with others (set of psychological traits that make each person different).

  • Ques. 1: What are its dimensions?

  • Ques. 2: How is it measured?

  • Ques. 3: What is its value for management

    and business applications?

Ques 1 what are its dimensions

Ques. 1: What Are Its Dimensions?

Answer 1: The “Big Five”

  • Most scientifically established and empirically tested framework of personality in the world

  • Individuals vary across five dimensions:

    • Emotional stability

    • Extraversion

    • Openness to experience

    • Agreeableness

    • Conscientiousness

Ques 1 what are its dimensions cont

Ques. 1: What Are Its Dimensions (cont.)?

Answer 2: The MBTI

  • Most popular and widely used in the world

  • Individuals are classified as:

    • Extroverted or Introverted (E or I):

      • Outgoing, sociable, and assertive, vs. quiet, “shy,” and draw energy and strength from within

    • Sensing or Intuitive (S or N):

      • Practical and prefer focusing on details vs. relying on unconscious (intuitive) processes and look at the big picture

    • Thinking or Feeling (T or F):

      • Use reason and logic to handle problems vs. rely on their personal values and emotions

    • Judging or Perceiving (J or P):

      • Like their world to be ordered, structured and controlled vs. flexible and spontaneous

Ques 1 what are its dimensions cont1

Ques. 1: What Are Its Dimensions (cont.)?

Answer 3: Some additional misc. facets:

  • Core Self Evaluation:Degree of one’s self liking or disliking.

  • Self-Monitoring:Sensitivity to situational cues and the capacity to modify or adapt one’s behavior as appropriate.

  • Locus of Control:Propensity to actively take initiative, and to identify and pursue (even create) new opportunities.

  • Risk Propensity:Willingness and comfort in taking chances.

  • Machiavellianism:Tendency to manipulate and maintain emotional distance to achieve one’s aims.

  • Type A/B Personality:Type A is aggressive, impatient and incessantly struggling to achieve more (while B is opposite).

Ques 2 how is personality measured

Ques. 2: How Is Personality Measured?

Answer: Typical methods for measuring:

  • Self-report inventories (most common):

    • NEO PI-R

    • CPI

    • MBTI

    • many others....

  • Clinical evaluations:

    • MMPI

  • Projective tests:

    • TAT (similar to “ink blots”)

Ques 3 business and mgmt applications

Ques. 3: Business and Mgmt. Applications

The more typical business applications:

  • Employee development and coaching

  • Making hiring decisions:

    • What personality facets should be used?

    • What job performance criteria?

    • Interaction with job and contextual elements?

      • job requirements

      • organization’s culture

      • situation cues (“strong” vs. “weak” situations)

  • What is “predictive success” of using personality?

Individuals and values

Individuals and Values

  • Values defined as:

    • Stable, long-lasting beliefs and preferences about what is worthwhile and desirable

    • A mode of conduct or end state that is personally or socially desirable (what is right or good).

  • Values can be classified (e.g., Rokeach)

  • Values vary by cohort groups

  • Values vary by cultural identity

  • Knowledge about personality and values can help improve an employee’s “fit”

Personality job fit holland s hexagon

Personality-Job Fit:Holland’s Hexagon

  • Vocational Preference Inventory Questionnaire

  • Job satisfaction and turnover depend on congruency between personality and task

    • Fields adjacent are similar

    • Field opposite are dissimilar

Person organization fit

Person-Organization Fit

It appears more important that employees’ personalities fit with the organization’s culture than with the specific characteristics of a given job.

A good fit helps predict job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover.

From the rokeach values survey

From the Rokeach Values Survey

Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973).

From the rokeach values survey1

From the Rokeach Values Survey

Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973).

Dominant work values by cohort groups

Dominant Work Values by Cohort Groups

Source: Based on W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, “The Values of Corporate Managers and Their Critics: An Empirical Description and Normative Implications,” in W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston (eds.) Business Ethics: Research Issues and Empirical Studies (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 123–44.

Contemporary work cohorts

Contemporary Work Cohorts

National culture and values

Rules, Laws

Stories of Heroes

Language, Food

Physical Structures






National Culture and Values

Artifacts of


Core of


Hofstede s framework for assessing cultures

Hofstede’s Frameworkfor Assessing Cultures

  • Power distance

  • Individualism vs. collectivism

  • Achievement vs. nurturing

  • Uncertainty avoidance

  • Long-term vs. short-term orientation

Exh 2 6

Exh. 2-6

Globe studies framework for assessing cultures


Future Orientation

Gender Differentiation

Uncertainty Avoidance

Power Distance


In-Group Collectivism

Performance Orientation

Humane Orientation

“GLOBE” Studies Frameworkfor Assessing Cultures

Importance of values

Importance of Values

  • Help us make sense of attitudes, motivation, and behaviors.

  • Influence our perceptions of the world.

  • Give us answers about right and wrong (and thus have implications for business ethics)

  • Values, by definition, mean some behaviors or outcomes are more preferredthan others.

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