Staying in balance
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Staying in Balance. Metabolism, Calories & Stress. PLEASE Hold Questions until End. Metabolism [ sum of all chemical reactions in body]. Catabolism b reak into simplest parts Fats : fatty acids & glycerol Carbohydrates : simple sugars g lucose- fructose – galactose Protein : amino acids.

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Staying in Balance

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Staying in balance

Staying in Balance

Metabolism, Calories & Stress


Please hold questions until end

PLEASE Hold Questions until End


Metabolism sum of all chemical reactions in body

Metabolism [ sum of all chemical reactions in body]

Catabolism

break into simplest parts

Fats: fatty acids & glycerol

Carbohydrates: simple sugars

glucose- fructose – galactose

Protein: amino acids

Anabolism

build / repair / fuel

glycerol & fatty acids = fats

Glycogen -> glucose

Amino acids -> protein

gluconeogenesis


Staying in balance

Hunger = hun·gerˈhəNGɡər/ noun

a feeling of discomfort or weakness caused by lack of food, coupled with the desire to eat. [ physiological]

Appetite = ap·pe·tite

ˈapəˌtīt/

Noun

a natural desire to satisfy a bodily need, especially for food [psychological]

  • Satiety = sa·ti·e·tysəˈtīədē/

  • nountechnical

  • the feeling or state of being sated. satisfied (an appetite or desire)

  • [physiological]


Body uses energy in form of calories

Body uses energy in form of Calories

  • Calorie = kilocalories = kcals

  • Carbohydrates = 4 kcal/ gm [ 4.1]

  • Protein = 4 kcal / gm [ 4.1]

  • Fats = 9 kcal / gm [ 9.5]

  • Alcohol = 7 kcal / gm [oz]


How many calories do i need

How many calories do I need?

  • Basal Metabolic Rate [BMR] = Resting Metabolic Rate [RMR]

  • Thermic Effect of Food [TEF] = 10% of RMR

  • Physical Activity / Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis [ NEAT ]

  • Gender

  • Age

  • Anthropomorphism / Genetics

  • Food choices


Staying in balance

  • Mifflin St. Jeor Equation

  • For men: BMR = 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) – 5 x age (years) + 5       For women: BMR = 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) – 5 x age (years) – 161

  • total daily energy expenditure [TDEE]

  • Thermic Effect of Activity (TEA): This is the amount of calories burned while exercising fluctuates daily

  • Thermic Effect of Feeding (TEF) digest food and absorb its nutrients, body uses energy in the form of calories.


To estimate daily caloric needs

to estimate Daily caloric needs –

  • Underweight Adults body weight [lbs] x 18

  • Normal Weight Adults body weight [lbs] x 16

  • Overweight Adults body weight [lbs] x 14

  • Muscle uses 6 calories / lb / day

  • Adipose uses 2 calories / lb / day

  • Bone uses 1 calorie / lb / day

  • Internal organs use 24.4 calories / lb / day


A calorie is a calorie is a calorie or is it

a calorie is a calorie is a calorie –or is it?


Liquid calories

Liquid calories

  • Must chew to stimulate satiety signals

  • Sweetened drinks: the more consumed the higher risk of CVD, obesity, diabetes

  • Soup – stimulates satiety


Chocolate calories

Chocolate calories

Hershey’s Milk Chocolate Bar

210 calories

26 grams of carbs / 24 grams of sugar

13 grams of fat / 8 grams of sat.fat

43 -gm serving [ 1 bar]

  • Chocolove’s Extra Strong Dark Chocolate 77% cocoa

  • 170 calories

  • 11 grams of carbs / 6 grams of sugar

  • 13 grams of fat / 8 grams sat fat

  • 30-gram serving [ 1/3 of bar]


Insulin

Insulin

  • Made in pancreas

  • Released in response / anticipation : food ingestion

  • Assists in cellular uptake of fats & carbohydrates & protein

  • Turns on brain satiety signals


Stress

Stress

  • Eustress vs Distress

  • Stressor: anything that knocks you out of balance [homeostasis]

  • Physical – social – psychological

  • Stress response: what body does to re-establish balance

  • same response for all stressors

  • Acute vs Chronic


Basic stress response

Basic Stress Response

  • Brain receives information that in danger [ physical, social or psychological source]

  • It releases CRH [blunts appetite] and Noradrenaline

  • CRH [ sec ]-> ACTH [ seconds ] -> Cortisol [stimulates appetite / suppresses sensitivity to leptin] [minutes ]-> glucose & fatty acids

  • Noradrenaline [ seconds] -> Adrenaline [ minutes] - > affects body systems

  • Pancreas releases Glucagon -> glucose

  • Leptin: hormone released by adipose tissue in response to increased stores of fatty acids –suppresses appetite


Stress hormones

Stress hormones

  • Glucocorticoids primarily Cortisol – made in adrenal glands. Stimulated by pituitary hormone [ACTH] which is triggered by CRH [ hypothalamus] in response to noradrenaline

  • Glucagon - made in pancreas. Breaks down glycogen in liver

  • Adrenaline / Noradrenaline [ epinephrine / norepinephrine] - Sympathetic Nervous System response – triggers adrenal glands, and affects body systems

  • [ fight – flight – freeze]


Staying in balance

Cortisol [produced in Adrenal Cortex; highest levels in AM; produced as a result of Sympathetic Nervous System activation]

  • Acute Stress

  • Quick burst of energy [ survival]

  • Heightened memory functions

  • Increased Immunity

  • Lower pain sensitivity

  • Assists with homeostasis

  • Appetite Suppressor

  • Chronic Stress

  • fatigue

  • Impaired cognitive performance

  • Blood sugar imbalances

  • High Blood Pressure

  • Decreased Immunity and Inflammatory response; slow wound healing

  • Increased abdominal adiposity

  • Appetite Stimulant [ 75% US population]


Staying in balance

Any type is effective in decreasing stress, anxiety and depression

Suppresses release of Cortisol and Adrenaline

Stimulates release of Endorphins

Improves Sleep & Increases Energy

Enhances self Image; Self Confidence


Staying in balance

Questions?


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