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Measurements & Math. Exact numbers!. Numbers determined by counting or by definition Ex: 6 apples, 1 teacher 1 inch=2.54 cm. In Science…. Numbers are based on MEASUREMENTS made in the lab. Our data is only as good as the measurements we make and the instruments we use. Qualitative Data.

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exact numbers
Exact numbers!
  • Numbers determined by counting or by definition
  • Ex: 6 apples, 1 teacher
  • 1 inch=2.54 cm
in science
In Science…
  • Numbers are based on MEASUREMENTS made in the lab.
  • Our data is only as good as the measurements we make and the instruments we use.
qualitative data
Qualitative Data
  • Observation that DOES NOT involve a number/measurement
  • EX. Presence of odor, color change
quantitative data
Quantitative Data
  • Observation that DOES involve a number/measurement (has magnitude size or amount)
  • Ex. Length, mass, volume
copy in your notes
Copy in your notes!!
  • Accuracy: how close a measured value is to the actual (true) value.
  • Precision: how close the measured values are to each other.
significant figures
Significant Figures
  • Shows how PRECISE a measurement is
  • Indicates the QUALITY of the instrument you use (how sensitive or exact)

EX. Graduated cylinder vs. beaker

counting significant figures
Counting Significant figures

5 sig figs

  • 5432.1
  • 0.00032
  • 4004
  • 82.0000

2 sig figs

4 sig figs

6 sig figs

scientific notation
Scientific Notation
  • Used to write really LARGE or really small #’s
  • Why? To save space & time
sci notation rules
Sci. Notation Rules!
  • Written in the form of m x 10n
  • m: ≥ 1 AND <10

indicate the number of sig. figs

steps of the scientific notation
steps of the scientific notation
  • Step 1) Determine the sig figs
    • 106,000,000 = 3 sig figs
  • Step 2) Determine the value of M using the sig figs
    • 1.06 (remember this must be between 1 and 10)
  • Step 3) Add the 10’s multiplier
    • 1.06 x 10n
slide14

Step 4) Determine the value of “n” by counting the number of times you move the decimal in the original number to get the value for “M”

  • Step 5) Determine the sign of “n” by looking at the direction that you moved the decimal
    • Move decimal to left = “n” is positive
    • Move decimal to right = “n” is negative
now go the other way
Now go the other waY!!
  • Ex. 1) 7,801
  • Ex. 2) 0.00030

7.801 x 103

3.0 x 10-4

slide16

Ex. 1) 3.1 x 104

  • Ex. 2) 4.08 x 10-6

31,000

0.00000408

si units of measurement
SI Units of Measurement
  • One system for all scientists around the world
  • We must have a standard for comparison

length – meter (m)

mass – kilogram(kg)

time – second (s)

volume – liter (L)

si prefixes
SI prefixes
  • Added to base units to represent large or smaller quantities

SI Prefix Unit Abbreviation Exponential Factor

kilo K 103

hecto h 102

deka da 101

BASE m,g,s,L 100

deci d 10-1

centi c 10-2

milli m 10-3

King Henry Died By Drinking Chocolate Milk

example
Example

10,000

  • 10 g = ____________mg?

K h da b d c m

example1
Example
  • 14.6 dL= __________ kL
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