Measurements math
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Measurements & Math. Exact numbers!. Numbers determined by counting or by definition Ex: 6 apples, 1 teacher 1 inch=2.54 cm. In Science…. Numbers are based on MEASUREMENTS made in the lab. Our data is only as good as the measurements we make and the instruments we use. Qualitative Data.

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Measurements & Math

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Measurements math

Measurements & Math


Exact numbers

Exact numbers!

  • Numbers determined by counting or by definition

  • Ex: 6 apples, 1 teacher

  • 1 inch=2.54 cm


In science

In Science…

  • Numbers are based on MEASUREMENTS made in the lab.

  • Our data is only as good as the measurements we make and the instruments we use.


Qualitative data

Qualitative Data

  • Observation that DOES NOT involve a number/measurement

  • EX. Presence of odor, color change


Quantitative data

Quantitative Data

  • Observation that DOES involve a number/measurement (has magnitude size or amount)

  • Ex. Length, mass, volume


Copy in your notes

Copy in your notes!!

  • Accuracy: how close a measured value is to the actual (true) value.

  • Precision: how close the measured values are to each other.


Accuracy vs precision

Accuracy vs. Precision


Significant figures

Significant Figures

  • Shows how PRECISE a measurement is

  • Indicates the QUALITY of the instrument you use (how sensitive or exact)

    EX. Graduated cylinder vs. beaker


Sig fig rules

Sig Fig Rules!


Counting significant figures

Counting Significant figures

5 sig figs

  • 5432.1

  • 0.00032

  • 4004

  • 82.0000

2 sig figs

4 sig figs

6 sig figs


Scientific notation

Scientific Notation

  • Used to write really LARGE or really small #’s

  • Why? To save space & time


Sci notation rules

Sci. Notation Rules!

  • Written in the form of m x 10n

  • m: ≥ 1 AND <10

    indicate the number of sig. figs


Steps of the scientific notation

steps of the scientific notation

  • Step 1) Determine the sig figs

    • 106,000,000 = 3 sig figs

  • Step 2) Determine the value of M using the sig figs

    • 1.06 (remember this must be between 1 and 10)

  • Step 3) Add the 10’s multiplier

    • 1.06 x 10n


Measurements math

  • Step 4) Determine the value of “n” by counting the number of times you move the decimal in the original number to get the value for “M”

  • Step 5) Determine the sign of “n” by looking at the direction that you moved the decimal

    • Move decimal to left = “n” is positive

    • Move decimal to right = “n” is negative


Now go the other way

Now go the other waY!!

  • Ex. 1) 7,801

  • Ex. 2) 0.00030

7.801 x 103

3.0 x 10-4


Measurements math

  • Ex. 1) 3.1 x 104

  • Ex. 2) 4.08 x 10-6

31,000

0.00000408


Si units of measurement

SI Units of Measurement

  • One system for all scientists around the world

  • We must have a standard for comparison

    length – meter (m)

    mass – kilogram(kg)

    time – second (s)

    volume – liter (L)


Si prefixes

SI prefixes

  • Added to base units to represent large or smaller quantities

    SI Prefix Unit Abbreviation Exponential Factor

    kiloK103

    hectoh102

    dekada101

    BASEm,g,s,L100

    decid10-1

    centic10-2

    milli m10-3

    King Henry Died By Drinking Chocolate Milk


Example

Example

10,000

  • 10 g = ____________mg?

K h da b d c m


Example1

Example

  • 14.6 dL= __________ kL


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