Atomic structure compounds loosely based on chapter 3 sec 1 thru 4 of jespersen 6 th ed
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Atomic Structure & Compounds (loosely based on Chapter 3 Sec 1 thru 4 of Jespersen 6 th ed). Dr. C. Yau Fall 2013. 1. Dalton's Atomic Theory (p.10). Matter consists of tiny particles called atoms. In any sample of a pure element, all the atoms are identical in mass and other properties.

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Atomic Structure & Compounds (loosely based on Chapter 3 Sec 1 thru 4 of Jespersen 6 th ed)

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Atomic structure compounds loosely based on chapter 3 sec 1 thru 4 of jespersen 6 th ed

Atomic Structure & Compounds(loosely based on Chapter 3 Sec 1 thru 4of Jespersen 6th ed)

Dr. C. Yau

Fall 2013

1


Dalton s atomic theory p 10

Dalton's Atomic Theory (p.10)

  • Matter consists of tiny particles called atoms.

  • In any sample of a pure element, all the atoms are identical in mass and other properties.

  • The atoms of different elements differ in mass and other properties.

  • When atoms of different elements combine they form compounds with the elements in a fixed ratio by mass. Reactions are merely rearrangement of atoms to form different compounds.

  • Atoms are indestructible. In chemical reactions, the atoms rearrange but they do not themselves break apart.

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Chemical

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2


Atomic structure compounds loosely based on chapter 3 sec 1 thru 4 of jespersen 6 th ed

The 3 major subatomic particles

Know this well !

u (amu) = atomic mass unit

(a very small unit of mass)

1 gram = 602,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000 u

3

3


Atomic mass

Atomic Mass

  • Dalton’s atomic theory states that atoms of an element have a constant, characteristic atomic mass or atomic weightmeasured inu.

  • Atomic masses are based on a standard mass, that of an atom of C.

  • 1 atom of carbon-12 weighs 12 u exactly.

  • Thus 1 u = 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom. This is the definition of u.


Isotopes

Isotopes

  • Most elements in nature are uniform mixtures of two or more kinds of atoms with slightly different masses.

  • For example: There are 3 isotopes of hydrogen, 4 isotopes of iron and 10 isotopes of tin.

  • Isotopes

    are atoms of the same element with different masses.

  • Isotopes

    are atoms with the same #p but with different #n.

  • Chemically, isotopes have virtually identical properties. (There are slight differences that we will note be concerned with at this level of chemistry.)

KNOW WELL


Atomic notation

Atomic Notation

  • An element is a substance whose atoms all contain the identical number of protons, called the atomic number (Z)

  • Isotopes are distinguished by the

    mass number(A):

    • Atomic number, Z = number of protons

    • Mass number, A = (# of protons) + (# of neutrons)

    • Note that for atoms, A is greater than Z: the symbol is "top-heavy."

  • For neutral atoms, the number of electrons and protons must be equal.


Example uranium 235

Example: uranium-235

This indicates the mass number.

From the nuclear symbol we can determine the # protons, electrons and neutrons:

# protons = 92

# electrons = 92 (since no charge is shown)

#neutrons = 235 – 92 = 143

235

U

92

Mass number, (protons + neutrons) 

Chemical Symbol 

Atomic number, (number of protons) 


Atomic structure compounds loosely based on chapter 3 sec 1 thru 4 of jespersen 6 th ed

Fill in the blanks:

symbolneutronsprotons electrons

60Co

81Br

36 29 29

27

27

33

35

35

46


Atomic structure compounds loosely based on chapter 3 sec 1 thru 4 of jespersen 6 th ed

This is how Fe appears in the periodic table.

How many neutrons are

there in Fe?

Trick question! You can’t tell!

How many neutrons are there

in 53Fe?

A) 26

B) 55

C) 27

D) none of these

Ans. 53 – 26 = 27

mass number - # protons = # neutrons

26

Fe

55.85

This is NOT the atomic mass number.


Atomic structure compounds loosely based on chapter 3 sec 1 thru 4 of jespersen 6 th ed

Hydrogen has 3 isotopes:

tritium

deuterium

protium

99.985% abundance

0.015 % abundance

0.000 % abundnace

1 proton

1 neutron

1 proton

2 neutrons

1 proton

no neutron

approx. mass of each atom = 1 u

2 u

3 u

10

10


Atomic structure compounds loosely based on chapter 3 sec 1 thru 4 of jespersen 6 th ed

What we call "heavy water" is D2O.

(Regular water being H2O, with practically all the hydrogen atoms being protium.)

One molecule of H2O weighs 18 u.

One molecule of D2O weighs 20 u.

Hence D2O is known as “heavy water.”

Tritium is the only radioactive isotope of hydrogen. Such isotopes are referred to as a radioisotope.

NOTE: The term "isotope" does NOT mean that it is radioactive.

11

11


Atomic structure compounds loosely based on chapter 3 sec 1 thru 4 of jespersen 6 th ed

Naturally occurring chlorine is a mixture of two isotopes. In every sample of this element, 75.77% of the atoms are chlorine-35 and 24.23% are chlorine-37. The measured mass of chlorine-35 is 34.9689 u and that of chlorine-37 is 36.9659 u. Calculate the average atomic mass of chlorine.

0.7577 x 34.9689 u = 26.495 u (4 sig. fig.)

0.2423 x 36.9659 u = 8.9568 u (4 sig. fig.)

atomic mass = 35.4518 u (2 decimal places)

17

Cl

35.45

35.45 u

This is the atomic mass

or atomic weight.


Atomic structure compounds loosely based on chapter 3 sec 1 thru 4 of jespersen 6 th ed

There are 2 isotopes of element Z. The first is 56.5% in abundance and has a mass of 152.3 u. If the atomic mass is 155.5 u, what is the mass of the other isotope?

Hint: Let x be the mass of the other isotope.

What % in abundance is this other isotope?

159.6u = 160. u (3 sig.fig.)


Some important classifications

Some Important Classifications:

  • A groups = representativeelements

    or main group elements

    I A = alkali metalsII A = alkaline earth metals

    VII A = halogens VIII = noble (inert) gases

    • B groups =transition elements

  • Inner transition elements = elements 58 – 71 and 90 – 103

    58 – 71 = lanthanide elements

    90 – 103 = actinide elements


  • Metals nonmetals and metalloids

    Metals, Nonmetals, And Metalloids


    Properties of metals

    Properties Of Metals

    Metals...

    • reflect light (have metallic luster)

    • can be hammered or rolled into thin sheets (are malleable) andcan be drawn into a wire (are ductile)

    • are solids at room temperature(except Hg)

    • conduct electricity and heat


    Nonmetals and metalloids

    Nonmetals And Metalloids

    Nonmetals...

    • lack the properties of metals

    • tend to pulverize when struck with a hammer

    • Are non-conductors of electricity and heat

    • Many are gases, a few solids,and one liquid (Br2)

    • react with metals to form (ionic) compounds

  • Metalloids

    • have properties between metals and nonmetals


  • Extremely important

    EXTREMELY IMPORTANT!

    nonmetal + nonmetal

    nonmetal + metal

    metal + metal

    covalentmolecules

    ionic compounds

    alloys

    Note: Alloys are not compounds. They are homogeneous mixtures of metals, sometimes with a small amount of nonmetals, such as C in steel.


    Learning check count the atoms in a chemical formula

    1

    2

    3

    2

    8

    1

    4

    8

    3

    2

    1

    1

    10

    9

    What exactly does this dot tell you?

    Learning Check: Count The Atoms In A Chemical Formula

    • Na2CO3

    • (NH4)2SO4

    • Mg3(PO4)2

    • CuSO4•5H2O

    • ___Na, ___C, ___ O

    • ___N,___H, ___S, ____O

    • ___Mg, ___P, ____O

    • ___Cu, ___S, ___O, ___H


    Covalent molecules

    Covalent Molecules

    The subscripts in the formula of covalent molecules tell you exactly how many atoms of each element is present.

    They do not merely state a ratio.

    e.g. CO2 tells us the molecule contains one C atom and two O atoms.


    Ionic compounds

    Positively charged ions are called cations

    Negatively charged ions are called anions

    Subscripts in the formula always specify the smallest whole-number ratio of the ions needed to make a neutral combination (formula unit, or f.u.)

    It does not mean 2 Fe ions are bonded to 3 O ions.

    Subscripts tell us the ions are in a ratio of 2Fe to 3 O.

    2

    3

    Fe3+

    +

    O2-

    FeO

    2

    3

    Ionic Compounds


    Atomic structure compounds loosely based on chapter 3 sec 1 thru 4 of jespersen 6 th ed

    The subscripts in the formula of

    • covalent molecules tell you the exactnumberof the atoms of each element is present.

    • ionic compounds tell you the ratioof the atoms of each element that is present.


    Overview molecules vs formula units

    Overview: Molecules vs. Formula Units

    • Electrically neutral, discrete particles called molecules. (H2O)

    • Neutral groups of charged particles calledformula units. (NaCl)


    Why are ions charged

    Why are ions charged?

    • # p+ = # e- if neutral

    • # p+ < # e- if negative

    • # p+ > # e- if positive

    • The number of p+ never changes when ions form.

    • Ions are formed when the atom gains or loses electrons. Protons are not affected.

    How does Ca form Ca2+?

    Ca lost 2 electrons

    How is N3- formed?

    N gained 3 electrons


    Atomic structure compounds loosely based on chapter 3 sec 1 thru 4 of jespersen 6 th ed

    Fill in the blanks:

    Symbolneutronsprotons electrons

    60Co3+

    81Br-

    36 2927

    24

    27

    33

    36

    46

    35


    Summary of properties

    Summary of Properties

    Hardness and brittleness

    • Molecular compounds tend to be soft and easily crushed because the attractions between molecules are weak and molecules can slide past each other.

    • Ionic compounds are hard and brittle because of the strong attractions and repulsions between ions


    Melting points

    Melting Points

    • To melt the a solid, there must be sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the attractions between particles

      • Molecular compounds have weak attractions between particles and so tend to have low melting points.

      • Many molecular compounds are gases at room temperature.

      • Ionic compounds tend to have strong attractions so they have high melting points.

      • Nearly all ionic compounds are solids at room temperature.


    Electrical conductivity

    Electrical Conductivity

    • Requires the movement of electrical charge

    • Ionic compounds:

      • Do not conduct electricity in the solid state

      • Do conduct electricity in the liquid and aqueous states-The ions are free to move.

    • Molecular compounds:

      • Do not conduct electricity in any state.

      • Molecules are comprised of uncharged particles.

      • Exception: Strong acids are molecular substances that become ionic when dissolved in water.


    Atomic structure compounds loosely based on chapter 3 sec 1 thru 4 of jespersen 6 th ed

    Which of the following is likely true of NO2?

    • It conducts electricity well.

    • It has a low melting point.

    • It is likely a solid in its pure form.

    • None of these

      The formula tells you it’s a molecular compound, so it is not expected to conduct electricity, should have a relatively low mp, and therefore not likely to be a solid in its pure form.

      You should know how the formula tells you that it’s a molecular formula. See Slide 18!


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