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Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D. From Myers, Psychology 8e Worth Publishers. Chapter 18: Social Psychology. Conform. You’ve got an Attitude. It’s just natural. Social Thinking. Do the right thing. Social Thinking. 500. 400. 300. 200. 100. You’ve got attitude. 500.

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Step up to psychology by john j schulte psy d l.jpg

Step Up To: Psychologyby John J. Schulte, Psy.D.

From Myers,

Psychology 8e

Worth Publishers


Chapter 18 social psychology l.jpg
Chapter 18: Social Psychology

Conform

You’ve got an Attitude

It’s just natural

Social Thinking

Do the right thing


Slide3 l.jpg

Social Thinking

500

400

300

200

100


Slide4 l.jpg

You’ve got attitude

500

400

300

200

100


Slide5 l.jpg

Conform

500

400

300

200

100


Slide6 l.jpg

It’s just natural

500

400

300

200

100


Slide7 l.jpg

Do the right thing

500

400

300

200

100


1 attribution theory was designed to account for l.jpg
1. Attribution theory was designed to account for:

  • A) the process of revealing intimate aspects of ourselves to others.

  • B) the impact of both heredity and environment on social behavior.

  • C) social facilitation and social loafing.

  • D) how people explain others’ behavior.


2 fritz heider concluded that people tend to attribute others behavior either to their or to their l.jpg
2. Fritz Heider concluded that people tend to attribute others’ behavior either to their ____ or to their ____.

  • A) heredity; environment

  • B) dispositions; situations

  • C) biological motives; psychological motives

  • D) cognitions; emotions


Slide10 l.jpg
3. We have a tendency to explain the behavior of others in terms of ____ and to explain our own behavior in terms of ____.

  • A) personality traits; situational constraints

  • B) informational influence; normative influence

  • C) situational constraints; personality traits

  • D) normative influence; informational influence


4 the fundamental attribution error is likely to lead observers to l.jpg
4. The fundamental attribution error is likely to lead observers to:

  • A) show sympathy toward those who are poor and unemployed.

  • B) praise those who have engaged in acts of heroism.

  • C) show mercy toward those who have committed criminal acts.

  • D) do all of the above.


Slide12 l.jpg
Poverty and unemployment are likely to be explained in terms of personal dispositions by ___ and in terms of situational influences by ___.

  • A) the poor; the rich

  • B) attribution theory; social exchange theory

  • C) social psychologists; evolutionary psychologists

  • D) political conservatives; political liberals


6 the foot in the door phenomenon refers to the tendency to l.jpg
6. The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to:

  • A) neglect critical thinking because of a strong desire for social harmony within a group.

  • B) perform simple tasks more effectively in the presence of others.

  • C) comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.

  • D) lose self-restraint in group situations that foster anonymity.


7 attitudes are that guide behavior l.jpg
7. Attitudes are ___ that guide behavior. to:

  • A) norms and roles

  • B) superordinate goals

  • C) beliefs and feelings

  • D) dispositional attributions


Slide15 l.jpg

8. After she was promoted to a high-level executive position in a large company, Jody developed more pro-business political attitudes. This best illustrates the impact of:

  • A) deindividuation.

  • B) social facilitation.

  • C) mirror-image perceptions.

  • D) role-playing.


Slide16 l.jpg

9. We are most likely to experience cognitive dissonance if we feel ___ sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally ___.

  • A) a great; disapprove

  • B) little; disapprove

  • C) little; approve

  • D) a great; approve


Slide17 l.jpg

10. Kim is tempted to shoplift a gold necklace even though she has negative feelings about shoplifting. She is least likely to steal the merchandise if:

  • A) she is suffering the effects of deindividuation.

  • B) she is highly aware of her negative feelings about shoplifting.

  • C) her negative feelings about stealing were developed in early childhood.

  • D) she has recently shoplifted.


Slide18 l.jpg

11. Roberto hates to wear ties but wears one to his sister’s wedding to avoid his family’s disapproval. His behavior exemplifies the importance of:

  • A) the mere exposure effect.

  • B) informational social influence.

  • C) normative social influence.

  • D) social facilitation.


12 solomon asch reported that individuals conformed to a group s judgment of the lengths of lines l.jpg
12. Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group’s judgment of the lengths of lines:

  • A) only when the group was composed of at least six members.

  • B) even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect.

  • C) even when the group seemed uncertain and repeatedly altered its judgment.

  • D) only when members of the group were of high status.


13 a culture that promotes individualism is most likely to encourage l.jpg
13. A culture that promotes individualism is most likely to encourage:

  • A) altruism.

  • B) nonconformity.

  • C) ingroup bias.

  • D) groupthink.


Slide21 l.jpg
14. Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram’s initial obedience experiment because:

  • A) the “learners” made so few learning errors under stress.

  • B) the “teachers” actually enjoyed shocking another person.

  • C) the “learners” obediently accepted painful shocks without protest.

  • D) the “teachers” were more obedient than most people would have predicted.


Slide22 l.jpg
15. According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that:

  • A) even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.

  • B) people are naturally predisposed to be hostile and aggressive.

  • C) the desire to be accepted by others is one of the strongest human motives.

  • D) people value their freedom and react negatively when they feel they are being coerced to do something.


Slide23 l.jpg

16. Expert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots when alone. When four people watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots. This best illustrates:

  • A) the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

  • B) social facilitation.

  • C) group polarization.

  • D) the bystander effect.


Slide24 l.jpg
17. The tendency for people to exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal is known as:

  • A) deindividuation.

  • B) the bystander effect.

  • C) group polarization.

  • D) social loafing.


Slide25 l.jpg

18. When college women were dressed in KKK-style hoods, they demonstrated significantly more aggression. This is best explained in terms of:

  • A) social facilitation.

  • B) modeling.

  • C) groupthink.

  • D) deindividuation.


19 group polarization is most likely to occur in a group in which l.jpg
19. Group polarization is most likely to occur in a group in which:

  • A) two subgroups of individuals have opposing opinions.

  • B) individuals share a similar opinion.

  • C) each individual has a unique perspective.

  • D) individuals have not formed any opinion.


Slide27 l.jpg
20. The ill-fated decision of President John F. Kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of:

  • A) deindividuation.

  • B) the bystander effect.

  • C) groupthink.

  • D) social facilitation.


21 prejudice is best defined as l.jpg
21. Prejudice is best defined as: his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of:

  • A) the tendency to favor members of one’s own group.

  • B) a fearful suspicion of people one has never met.

  • C) an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members.

  • D) a perceived incompatibility of actions or goals.


22 which of the following proverbs is most clearly supported by research on social attraction l.jpg
22. Which of the following proverbs is most clearly supported by research on social attraction?

  • A) The beautiful are the lonely.

  • B) Opposites attract.

  • C) Absence makes the heart grow fonder.

  • D) Birds of a feather flock together.


23 grit attempts to reduce conflict through l.jpg
23. GRIT attempts to reduce conflict through: supported by research on social attraction?

  • A) third party mediation.

  • B) conciliation.

  • C) intimidation.

  • D) pacifism.


24 according to social exchange theory altruistic behavior is guided by l.jpg
24. According to social exchange theory, altruistic behavior is guided by:

  • A) calculations of costs and benefits.

  • B) feelings of social responsibility.

  • C) reciprocity of norms.

  • D) family ties.


Slide32 l.jpg
25. The best explanation for the inaction of bystanders during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to:

  • A) experience any empathy for a stranger.

  • B) assume personal responsibility for helping the victim.

  • C) realize that the incident was really an emergency situation.

  • D) notice that the incident was taking place.


Slide33 l.jpg

Congratulations! during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to:


Slide34 l.jpg

Answers during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to:

Stop here, or continue as a review


1 attribution theory was designed to account for35 l.jpg
1. Attribution theory was designed to account for: during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to:

  • A) the process of revealing intimate aspects of ourselves to others.

  • B) the impact of both heredity and environment on social behavior.

  • C) social facilitation and social loafing.

  • D) how people explain others’ behavior.

724


2 fritz heider concluded that people tend to attribute others behavior either to their or to their36 l.jpg
2. Fritz Heider concluded that people tend to attribute others’ behavior either to their ____ or to their ____.

  • A) heredity; environment

  • B) dispositions; situations

  • C) biological motives; psychological motives

  • D) cognitions; emotions

724


Slide37 l.jpg
3. We have a tendency to explain the behavior of others in terms of ____ and to explain our own behavior in terms of ____.

  • A) personality traits; situational constraints

  • B) informational influence; normative influence

  • C) situational constraints; personality traits

  • D) normative influence; informational influence

724


4 the fundamental attribution error is likely to lead observers to38 l.jpg
4. The fundamental attribution error is likely to lead observers to:

  • A) show sympathy toward those who are poor and unemployed.

  • B) praise those who have engaged in acts of heroism.

  • C) show mercy toward those who have committed criminal acts.

  • D) do all of the above.

724


Slide39 l.jpg
Poverty and unemployment are likely to be explained in terms of personal dispositions by ___ and in terms of situational influences by ___.

  • A) the poor; the rich

  • B) attribution theory; social exchange theory

  • C) social psychologists; evolutionary psychologists

  • D) political conservatives; political liberals

725


6 the foot in the door phenomenon refers to the tendency to40 l.jpg
6. The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to:

  • A) neglect critical thinking because of a strong desire for social harmony within a group.

  • B) perform simple tasks more effectively in the presence of others.

  • C) comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.

  • D) lose self-restraint in group situations that foster anonymity.

727


7 attitudes are that guide behavior41 l.jpg
7. Attitudes are ___ that guide behavior. to:

  • A) norms and roles

  • B) superordinate goals

  • C) beliefs and feelings

  • D) dispositional attributions

726


Slide42 l.jpg

8. After she was promoted to a high-level executive position in a large company, Jody developed more pro-business political attitudes. This best illustrates the impact of:

  • A) deindividuation.

  • B) social facilitation.

  • C) mirror-image perceptions.

  • D) role-playing.

728


Slide43 l.jpg

9. We are most likely to experience cognitive dissonance if we feel ___ sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally ___.

  • A) a great; disapprove

  • B) little; disapprove

  • C) little; approve

  • D) a great; approve

728


Slide44 l.jpg

10. Kim is tempted to shoplift a gold necklace even though she has negative feelings about shoplifting. She is least likely to steal the merchandise if:

  • A) she is suffering the effects of deindividuation.

  • B) she is highly aware of her negative feelings about shoplifting.

  • C) her negative feelings about stealing were developed in early childhood.

  • D) she has recently shoplifted.

729


Slide45 l.jpg

11. Roberto hates to wear ties but wears one to his sister’s wedding to avoid his family’s disapproval. His behavior exemplifies the importance of:

  • A) the mere exposure effect.

  • B) informational social influence.

  • C) normative social influence.

  • D) social facilitation.

731


12 solomon asch reported that individuals conformed to a group s judgment of the lengths of lines46 l.jpg
12. Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group’s judgment of the lengths of lines:

  • A) only when the group was composed of at least six members.

  • B) even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect.

  • C) even when the group seemed uncertain and repeatedly altered its judgment.

  • D) only when members of the group were of high status.

732


13 a culture that promotes individualism is most likely to encourage47 l.jpg
13. A culture that promotes individualism is most likely to encourage:

  • A) altruism.

  • B) nonconformity.

  • C) ingroup bias.

  • D) groupthink.

734


Slide48 l.jpg
14. Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram’s initial obedience experiment because:

  • A) the “learners” made so few learning errors under stress.

  • B) the “teachers” actually enjoyed shocking another person.

  • C) the “learners” obediently accepted painful shocks without protest.

  • D) the “teachers” were more obedient than most people would have predicted.

734


Slide49 l.jpg
15. According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that:

  • A) even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.

  • B) people are naturally predisposed to be hostile and aggressive.

  • C) the desire to be accepted by others is one of the strongest human motives.

  • D) people value their freedom and react negatively when they feel they are being coerced to do something.

735


Slide50 l.jpg

16. Expert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots when alone. When four people watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots. This best illustrates:

  • A) the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

  • B) social facilitation.

  • C) group polarization.

  • D) the bystander effect.

738


Slide51 l.jpg
17. The tendency for people to exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal is known as:

  • A) deindividuation.

  • B) the bystander effect.

  • C) group polarization.

  • D) social loafing.

738


Slide52 l.jpg

18. When college women were dressed in KKK-style hoods, they demonstrated significantly more aggression. This is best explained in terms of:

  • A) social facilitation.

  • B) modeling.

  • C) groupthink.

  • D) deindividuation.

739


19 group polarization is most likely to occur in a group in which53 l.jpg
19. Group polarization is most likely to occur in a group in which:

  • A) two subgroups of individuals have opposing opinions.

  • B) individuals share a similar opinion.

  • C) each individual has a unique perspective.

  • D) individuals have not formed any opinion.

739


Slide54 l.jpg
20. The ill-fated decision of President John F. Kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of:

  • A) deindividuation.

  • B) the bystander effect.

  • C) groupthink.

  • D) social facilitation.

740


21 prejudice is best defined as55 l.jpg
21. Prejudice is best defined as: his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of:

  • A) the tendency to favor members of one’s own group.

  • B) a fearful suspicion of people one has never met.

  • C) an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members.

  • D) a perceived incompatibility of actions or goals.

743


22 which of the following proverbs is most clearly supported by research on social attraction56 l.jpg
22. Which of the following proverbs is most clearly supported by research on social attraction?

  • A) The beautiful are the lonely.

  • B) Opposites attract.

  • C) Absence makes the heart grow fonder.

  • D) Birds of a feather flock together.

758


23 grit attempts to reduce conflict through57 l.jpg
23. GRIT attempts to reduce conflict through: supported by research on social attraction?

  • A) third party mediation.

  • B) conciliation.

  • C) intimidation.

  • D) pacifism.

769


24 according to social exchange theory altruistic behavior is guided by58 l.jpg
24. According to social exchange theory, altruistic behavior is guided by:

  • A) calculations of costs and benefits.

  • B) feelings of social responsibility.

  • C) reciprocity of norms.

  • D) family ties.

765


Slide59 l.jpg
25. The best explanation for the inaction of bystanders during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to:

  • A) experience any empathy for a stranger.

  • B) assume personal responsibility for helping the victim.

  • C) realize that the incident was really an emergency situation.

  • D) notice that the incident was taking place.

766


Acknowledgements l.jpg
Acknowledgements during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to:

  • Step Up Created by:

    • John J. Schulte, Psy.D.

  • Based on Psychology, Eighth Edition by

  • David Myers

  • Published by

  • Worth Publishers, 2006


Answers l.jpg
Answers during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to:


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