Case Study Outline. Introduction (2) Fuel Cell Technology (1) Infrastructure (1.5) Global warming, Oil supply safety, Political issues, pollution,… Fuel-Cell Technology The US Government and the Hydrogen Economy (1.5) European Union and Japanese Efforts (0.5)
CarbonDioxide Emissions and CarbonDioxideConcentrations (1751-2004)
1. External Implication:
U.S. Anthropogenic GHGs Emissions by Gas, 2006(Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent)
2. Internal Implication :
Type of Fuel cell:
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC)
Phosphoric-acid fuel cell (PAFC)
Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)
Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC)
Arranging two platinum electrodes with one end of each immersed in a container of sulfuric acid and the other ends separately sealed in containers of oxygen and hydrogen
Type of Fuel cell for the transportation:
PEM ( Proton change membrane or polymer electrolyte membrane)
Component of PEM fuel cell:
Consist of seven parts – All are assembled in a few mm thick.
- Proton exchange membrane: made of Teflon
- Two electrodes: Carbone Anode (-) and Platinum Cathode (+)
- Two porous backing for each electrode: made of carbon paper/cloth.
- Two exterior plates: made of stainless steel
Generate electricity by electrochemical reaction
Oxygen (O2) + Hydrogen (H2) H2O
Performance of PEM:
How does it work?:
Store H2 flow through channels in exterior plate and into anode, usually using Pt.
Resulting positive charge of H+, it is pulled through the membrane to the Cathode.
- The membrane prevent e- from traveling directly through the cathode.
3.The e- is forced into the external circuit that traveled around the membrane then into the cathode.
- This circuit is used to provide electricity to an electric motor, a rechargable battery, or another electric-power device
H+ and e- reach the cathode, atmosphere oxygen (O2) is forced into the cathode by a compressor.
- Pt catalyst in the cathode split the oxygen molecule in to 2 oxygen atoms.
5.O- & H+ bond to from H2O and small amount of heat
- Water and Heat are exhausted into the atmosphere as only by product of the process.
Pt is one of the world’s most precious metals. It is a barrier to reducing fuel-cell costs
Pt cost $865 per ounce – twice the price of goal.