A twelfth century hospital at polonnaruva and medical and surgical equipment
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A TWELFTH CENTURY HOSPITAL AT POLONNARUVA AND MEDICAL AND SURGICAL EQUIPMENT FOUND THEREIN (Part 2). P.N.PREMATILLEKE and A.P.R.ALUWIHARE. Surgery. Indian Subcontinent from before the onset of the Christian Era - Susrutha

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A TWELFTH CENTURY HOSPITAL AT POLONNARUVA AND MEDICAL AND SURGICAL EQUIPMENT

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A twelfth century hospital at polonnaruva and medical and surgical equipment

A TWELFTH CENTURY HOSPITAL

AT POLONNARUVA AND MEDICAL

AND SURGICAL EQUIPMENT

FOUND THEREIN (Part 2).

P.N.PREMATILLEKE and A.P.R.ALUWIHARE


Surgery

Surgery

  • Indian Subcontinent from before the onset of the Christian Era -Susrutha

  • Surgery is known to have existed as a science in Greek times

  • Surgical type instruments in:-

  • Taxila, instruments from Sirkat.

  • Models on Arab instruments are on display in Kuwait

  • Roman Empire surgery -instruments were found in Pompeii, In Britain are examples on Roman era instruments

  • Surgery was known in China, Eqypt


A twelfth century hospital at polonnaruva and medical and surgical equipment

Surgery is one of the main branch of Ayurveda. Susrut is called as Father of Surgery, his famous treatise “Susrut Samhita” is an ancient authoritative book on Surgery.

There are many significant features of Ayurvedic Surgery one of them is Anushastra karma i.e. minimal invasive para-surgical measure.

The Kshara karma is one of the Anushastra karma.


Susrutha approx 2000 yrs ago

Susrutha (approx 2000 yrs ago)

  • -Kshara Suthra thread and fistula

  • -training

  • -short finger nails and hair

  • -research-

  • -practice first on fruit

  • -invisible organisms that spread ‘infection’

  • -Forehead rhinoplasty


Records 1

Records (1)


Records 2

Records (2)


Kshara suthra

KSHARA SUTHRA


Srilanka less known

SriLanka-less known

Practice on

lotus leaves!

(Susrutha,

Mango/Pears


Surgery sri lanka

Surgery- Sri Lanka

  • Kings Buddhadasa and Parakramabahu?

  • Descriptions like in India- ? Copied or real

  • Accounts in Chulawamsa and other texts

  • Accounts by Budddhagosa

  • FINDING INSTRUMENTS VALIDATES TRUTH OF TEXTS AND THAT OPERATIONS WERE DONE


A twelfth century hospital at polonnaruva and medical and surgical equipment

?H’s


Grinders

‘Grinders’


Betel betel and tobacco leaf calcium hydroxide areconut

BETEL! Betel and tobacco leaf, Calcium Hydroxide, Areconut


Spoon

SPOON


Weighing machines scales

Weighing ‘machines’- Scales


Probes applicators

Probes/Applicators


Susrutha hindus

Susrutha/Hindus


Hindu instruments

‘Hindu’ instruments


Taxila

Taxila


Roman

Roman


Forceps long handle

Forceps- long handle


Forceps short jaw

Forceps- short jaw


Scissors thick metal handles

Scissors- thick, metal handles


Scissors wooden handle

Scissors-wooden handle


Lance wooden handle

Lance- wooden handle


Scalpel wooden handle

Scalpel- wooden handle


Some references

Some references

  • Aluwihare A.P.R.(1983- 2001) Personal observations in Kuwait, Edinburgh, St Albans, Taxila, Sirkat and Mohendajaro, Cairo, Naples and Pompeii, Xian,Lyon

  • Cassar, P.,(1974) Surgical instruments on a tomb slab in Roman Malta Med Hist. 18: 89-93

  • Gazzaniga V, Serarcangeli C (1999)Surgical Roman instruments in the Museum of History of Medicine of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" Med Secoli.;11:217-29

  • Hamarneh,SK., Awad, HA.,( 1977)Early surgical instruments excavated in Old Cairo, Egypt.Int Surg. 62; 520-4

  • Marshall, John H (1960) A Guide to Taxila Department of Archaeology, Pakistan; University Press Cambridge

  • Mukhopadhaya G (1914) The Surgical Instruments of the Hindus with a Comparative Study of the Greek, Roman , Arab, and the Modern European Surgeons Volumes I and II University Press Calcutta

  • Naqvi NH (2003) Surgical instruments in the Taxila Museum Med Hist. 47:89-98

  • Prakash. UB., (1978) Shushruta of ancient India SurgGynecol Obstet. 146; 263-72

  • Premathilleke, L. & Aluwihare, A.P.R.(1990) Ancient hospitals of Sri Lanka, Built environment and surgical systems; Ancient Ceylon; 10: 281-289.

  • Prematilleke L., & Aluwihare A.P.R. (1995) Ancient Hospital Systems of Sri Lanka 767- 781 Colour Plates Dr.M.S.NagarajaRao Festschrift Bangalore


Why decline lessons for today

Why decline?-Lessons for today

  • War

  • Disease

  • Shift of Capitals

  • Narrow mindedness of medical personnel-not participating in national affairs

  • Infighting amongst medical professionals


A twelfth century hospital at polonnaruva and medical and surgical equipment

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