unit 1 gross anatomy of the chest
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Unit 1: Gross Anatomy of the Chest. Part III: Muscles of Ventilation Reference & Reading: Egan\'s p.158-163. Muscles of Ventilation. Primary Muscles Diaphragm Intercostal muscles Accessory Muscles Scalenes Sternocleomastoid Pectoralis Major Abdominals. Diaphragm.

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unit 1 gross anatomy of the chest

Unit 1: Gross Anatomy of the Chest

Part III: Muscles of Ventilation

Reference & Reading: Egan\'s p.158-163

muscles of ventilation
Muscles of Ventilation
  • Primary Muscles
    • Diaphragm
    • Intercostal muscles
  • Accessory Muscles
    • Scalenes
    • Sternocleomastoid
    • Pectoralis Major
    • Abdominals
diaphragm
Diaphragm
  • Rises from costal margin
  • Connects at central tendon
  • Hemidiaphragms
  • Separates thorax from abdomen
diaphragm function
Diaphragm - Function
  • Resting Position
  • When muscle contracts, drops floor of thoracic cavity down
  • Pulls air in
intercostal muscles
Intercostal Muscles
  • Located between each rib pair
  • External Intercostals
  • Internal Intercostals
intercostal muscles function
Intercostal Muscles - Function
  • Active during quiet breathing
  • Elevates ribs, ↑ thoracic volume - occurs closer to exhalation
  • At increased lung volumes, ribs are lowered
  • Stabilizes chest wall during large pressure changes

Quiet Breathing – from www.gettyimages.com

retractions
Retractions
  • Also called intercostal retractions
  • There is increased amount of negative pressure generated
  • Clinical sign of increased WOB; look at suprasternal notch
  • Retractions on infant
accessory muscles inspiration
Collection of chest wall muscles

Help to increase thoracic space, by assisting the primary muscles:

Includes:

Scalene

Sternocleomastoid

Pectoralis

Trapezius

Accessory Muscles - Inspiration
scalene muscles
Scalene Muscles
  • 3 muscles
    • Anterior
    • Medial
    • Posterior
  • Arise from lower 5 cervical vertebrae & connect to 2nd rib anteriorly
  • Function:
    • Normal
    • With increased WOB
sternocledomastoids
Sternocledomastoids
  • Rise from manubrium & medial end of clavicle
  • Insert into the skull
  • Function:
    • Primary: supports head
    • Increased WOB: raises sternum up & out
pectoralis muscles
Pectoralis Muscles
  • Rises from clavicle & anterior surface of sternum
  • Function:
    • Primary: hugging motion
    • With increased WOB: pulls opposite of primary function
trapezius muscles
Trapezius Muscles
  • Arise from the occipital bone in the skull & all thoracic vertebrae; insert into clavicle
  • Function:
    • Primary: shrug shoulders; raise or lower arms
    • Increased WOB: Raises rib cage
accessory muscles exhalation
Accessory Muscles - Exhalation
  • Used to forcibly exhale (cough, sneeze, etc)
  • Muscles used are the abdominal muscles
  • Collectively compress abdominal contents to push diaphragm up
  • Includes:
    • External & internal obliques
    • Transverse abdominals
    • Rectus abdominus
internal external oblique
Internal & External Oblique
  • External Oblique: arise from lower 8 ribs
  • Internal Oblique: Arise from iliac crest& inguinal ligament
  • Fibrous aponeurosis
transverse abdominis
Transverse Abdominis
  • Arises from:
    • costal cartilages
    • Iliac crest
    • Part of inguinal ligament
  • Connects to a aponeurosis
rectus abdominis
Rectus Abdominis
  • Arises from pubic bones
  • Inserts into costal cartilages 5 -7
  • Contraction ↓ distance from xiphoid to pubis
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