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Options for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from the Air. Klaus S. Lackner Columbia University May, 2008. The Challenge: Holding the Stock of CO 2 constant. Extension of Historic Growth Rates. Constant emissions at 2010 rate. 560 ppm. 33% of 2010 rate. 10% of 2010 rate. 0% of 2010 rate.

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Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

Options for CapturingCarbon Dioxide from the Air

Klaus S. Lackner

Columbia University

May, 2008


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

The Challenge:Holding the Stock of CO2 constant

Extension of Historic Growth Rates

Constant emissions at 2010 rate

560 ppm

33% of 2010 rate

10% of 2010 rate

0% of 2010 rate

280 ppm


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

Comparison With Keeling’s Data


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

Lifting Cost

Carbon as a Low-Cost Source of Energy

US1990$ per barrel of oil equivalent

Cumulative Carbon Consumption as of1997

Cumulative Gt of Carbon Consumed

H.H. Rogner, 1997


A triad of large scale options

A Triad of Large Scale Options

  • Solar

    • Cost reduction and mass-manufacture

  • Nuclear

    • Cost, waste, safety and security

  • Fossil Energy

    • Zero emission, carbon storage and interconvertibility

Efficiency, conservation and alternative energy will help, but not solve the problem


Net zero carbon economy

Net Zero Carbon Economy

  • Closing the carbon cycle

CO2 extraction from air

CO2 emissions

power consumption

  • CO2 collection

CO2 handling

refining energy carrier

FOSSIL FUEL CYCLE

oxidized carbon disposal

fossil carbon extraction


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

Net Zero Carbon Economy

CO2 extraction from air

CO2 from concentrated sources

Permanent & safe disposal


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

Initially Air Capture is tied to Carbon Dioxide Storage

Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 3CO2(g) 

3MgCO3 + 2SiO2 +2H2O(l)

+63kJ/mol CO2


Air capture

Air Capture

  • Takes CO2 from the atmosphere to offset CO2 emissions

  • Can compensate for all and any emissions

  • Aims at distributed, small and mobile sources

  • Preserves access to hydrocarbon fuels


The substitution principle

The Substitution Principle

  • All CO2 is equal

  • Combustion and capture cancel out

    • No need to co-locate

  • Air is a perfect transport system

    • Mixing times are fast, weeks to months

  • Air is an excellent storage buffer

    • Annual emissions are 1% of stored CO2


Air capture a different paradigm

Air Capture: A Different Paradigm

  • Leave existing infrastructure intact

  • Retain quality transportation fuels

  • Eliminate shipping of CO2

  • Open remote sites for CO2 disposal

  • Enable fuel recycling with low cost electricity

Separate sources from sinks in space and time


Air capture is it geo engineering

Air CaptureIs it Geo-Engineering?

  • Con

    • Air capture simply separates sources and sinks in space and time

    • Air capture matches emissions one for one

    • Air capture provides a source of CO2

  • Pro

    • Air capture makes it possible to control the CO2 level in the atmosphere

Air capture directly counters an emission,

it does not fight one change with another


Natural air extraction

Natural Air Extraction

  • Ocean Uptake

    • 30% of anthropogenic CO2 emission

  • Trees

    • Biomass absorbs 100 GtC annually

    • Capture cost ~ $27/ton of CO2

    • Land demand too large

    • Leaves are underutilized for CO2 extraction


Air capture many options

Air Capture: Many Options

  • Growing biomass

    • Terrestrial biomass: Biofuels

      • Carbon is delivered as bio-based fuel

      • Combustion at a power plant with CCS leads to a net carbon reduction

    • Marine biomass: Ocean fertilization

      • Carbon is never collected but some is removed from the surface carbon cycle

  • Raising the alkalinity of the ocean

    • Adding base

      • E.g. dissolving CaCO3 into the ocean

    • Removing acid from ocean water

      • Removing HCl via electro-dialysis and disposing of it through neutralization


Air capture collection regeneration

Air Capture: Collection & Regeneration

Synthetic Tree

Courtesy GRT


Challenge co 2 in air is dilute

Challenge: CO2 in air is dilute

  • Energetics limits options

    • Work done on air must be small

      • compared to heat content of carbon

      • 10,000 J/m3 of air

  • No heating, no compression, no cooling

  • Low velocity 10m/s (60 J/m3)

Solution: Sorbents remove CO2 from air flow


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

Air

CO2

CO2 Capture from Air

1 m3of Air

40 moles of gas, 1.16 kg

wind speed 6 m/s

0.015 moles of CO2

produced by 10,000 J of gasoline

Volumes are drawn to scale


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

How much wind?(6m/sec)

Wind area that carries 10 kW of wind power

0.2 m2 for CO2

Wind area that carries 22 tons of CO2 per year

80 m 2

for Wind Energy

50 cents/ton of CO2 for contacting


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

Air Flow

CO2 diffusion

Ca(OH)2 as an absorbent

Ca(OH)2 solution

CaCO3 precipitate

CO2 mass transfer is limited by diffusion in air boundary layer


A first attempt

Ion exchanger:

Na2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 2Na(OH) + CaCO3

A First Attempt

Calciner:

CaCO3CaO+CO2

Air contactor:

2Na(OH) + CO2 Na2 CO3


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

ProcessReactions

Hydroxylation Reactor

CO2

(4)

Fluidized Bed

(1)

(2)

(3)

(6)

Membrane

Capture Device

Trona Process

Limestone Precipitate Dryer

(5)

Depleted

Air

Air

Membrane Device

(1) 2NaOH + CO2 Na2CO3 + H2OHo = - 171.8 kJ/mol

(2) Na2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 2NaOH + CaCO3Ho = 57.1 kJ/mol

(3) CaCO3 CaO + CO2 Ho = 179.2 kJ/mol

(4) CaO + H2O  Ca(OH)2 Ho = - 64.5 kJ/mol

(5) CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O Ho = -890.5 kJ/mol

(6) H2O (l) H2O (g) Ho = 41. kJ/mol

Source: Frank Zeman


Lime based air capture

Lime Based Air Capture

  • Is feasible

  • Carbon Neutral

  • < 250 kJ/mole of CO2


Need better sorbents

Need Better Sorbents

  • Fast Reaction Kinetics

    • Limited by air side transport

  • Low binding energy

    • Comparable to flue gas capture

  • Small environmental footprint

  • Failsafe designs

Sorbents designed for flue gas scrubbing are strong enough to capture CO2 from air


Sorbent choices

Sorbent Choices

350K

300K

Air

Power plant


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

Cost of Contacting the Air

Unit Cost

1/


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

Cost of CO2 from Air

Unit Cost

1/


Cost of co 2 from air rescaled

Cost of CO2 from Air(rescaled)

Unit Cost

Fixed Cost

1/


Comparison to flue stack scrubbing

Comparison to Flue Stack Scrubbing

  • Much larger collector

  • Similar sorbent recovery

  • Cost is in the sorbent recovery


Sketching out a design

Sketching out a design

  • Compare to windmills in 1960

  • Cost goal

    • $30/ton of CO2

    • Motivated by cost of fuel, oxygen, electricity, raw materials


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

115m

15 km3/day of air

15 km3/day of air

9,500t of CO2 pass through the tower daily.

Half of it could be collected

450 MWe NGCC plant

Water sprayed into the air at the top of the tower cools the air and generates a downdraft.

300m

As electricity producer the tower generates 3-4MWe

Cross section 10,000 m2

air fall velocity ~15m/s


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

60m by 50m

3kg of CO2 per second

90,000 tons per year

4,000 people or

15,000 cars

Would feed EOR for 800 barrels a day.

250,000 units for worldwide CO2 emissions


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

Air Extraction can compensate for CO2 emissions anywhere

2NaOH + CO2 Na2CO3

Art Courtesy Stonehaven CCS, Montreal


Grt s approach to air capture

GRT’s approachto air capture

  • GRT in Tucson has developed a sorbent process that is energetically efficient, always carbon positive

  • GRT plans to provide small factory produced units

  • Begin with the physical CO2 market

Together with Allen Wright & Gary Comer, I helped found a company to develop air capture technology. I am now a member


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

Small factory produced units can be packed into a standard 40 foot shipping container

GRT’s Vision


The first of a kind

The first of a kind


Collection and regeneration

Collection and Regeneration

  • Collection

  • Natural wind carries CO2 to collector

  • CO2 binds to surface on ion exchange sorbent materials

  • Regeneration

  • CO2 is recovered with:

    • liquid water wash

    • or carbonate solution wash

    • or low-temperature water vapor

    • plus optional low grade heat

  • Regenerated sorbent is reused many times over

Courtesy GRT


Options for regeneration

Options for Regeneration

  • Pressure Swing

  • Thermal Swing

  • Water Swing

    • Liquid water – wet water swing

    • Water vapor – humidity swing

  • Carbonate wash is a water swing

    • With CO2 transfer

    • Salt splitter for CO2 recovery


Electrodialysis

Na+

Na+

Na+

Cl-

Cl-

Cl-

Electrodialysis

Bipolar membrane

Bipolar membrane

H+ OH-

H+ OH-

salt

H+ OH-

salt

salt

acid

acid

base

acid

base

anionic membrane

cationic anionic membrane

cationic anionic membrane


Air capture collection regeneration1

Air Capture: Collection & Regeneration

Courtesy GRT


Grt s carbon energy and water balance

GRT’s Carbon, Energy and Water Balance

  • Production costs are negligible compared to lifetime capture

  • Energy consumption is small

    • Low grade heat

    • Electric power

    • Ambient energy

  • Water consumption can substitute for energy

    • Water consumption can be 5 to 15 times CO2 collection

    • Water can be salty or dirty

    • Some fresh water can be produced

  • Indirect emissions depend on energy sources

    • Worst case is still carbon positive


Four stages of air capture

Four Stages of Air Capture

  • Industrial and commercial CO2

  • CO2 capture compensating for emissions

  • CO2 capture for reducing CO2 concentrations in the air

  • CO2 capture for fuel recycling


Hydrogen or air extraction

Hydrogen or Air Extraction?

Coal,Gas Fossil Fuel Oil

Hydrogen

Gasoline

Distribution

Distribution

Cost comparisons

Consumption

Consumption

CO2 Transport

Air Extraction

CO2 Disposal


Carbon capture and storage for carbon neutral world

Carbon Capture and StorageforCarbon Neutral World

  • CCS simplifies Carbon Accounting

    • Ultimate Cap is Zero

    • Finite amount of carbon left


Air capture supports underground injection

Air Capture Supports Underground Injection

  • Safety Valve

    • Unpredicted changes in the underground reservoir should trigger a safe release of CO2

    • Compensated for by air capture

  • Carbon Accounting

    • Losses can be made up by air capture

    • Air capture can introduce C-14 tracking


Stabilizing co 2 in the atmosphere

Stabilizing CO2 in the atmosphere

  • CO2 capture can exceed emissions

  • CO2 capture can aim for design point


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

CO2

CO2

H2

H2

CH2

Materially Closed Energy Cycles

O2

O2

Energy

Source

Energy

Consumer

H2O

H2O


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

O

Oxygen

Oxidizer

Free O2

CO2

H2O

Combustion products

Increasing Oxidation State

Free C- H

CO

Town Gas

Methanol

Fischer Tropsch Synthesis Gas

Fuels

Biomass

Ethanol

Coal

Petroleum

Natural Gas

H

C

Carbon

Benzene

Methane

Hydrogen

Gasoline

Increasing Hydrogen Content


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

O

Oxygen

Oxidizer

Free O2

CO2

H2O

Combustion products

Increasing Oxidation State

Free C- H

CO

Town Gas

Methanol

Fischer Tropsch Synthesis Gas

Fuels

Biomass

Ethanol

Coal

Petroleum

Natural Gas

H

C

Carbon

Benzene

Methane

Hydrogen

Gasoline

Increasing Hydrogen Content


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

O

Oxygen

Oxidizer

Free O2

CO2

H2O

Combustion products

Increasing Oxidation State

Free C- H

CO

Town Gas

Methanol

Fischer Tropsch Synthesis Gas

Fuels

Biomass

Ethanol

Coal

Petroleum

Natural Gas

H

C

Carbon

Benzene

Methane

Hydrogen

Gasoline

Increasing Hydrogen Content


Options for capturing carbon dioxide from the air

Private Sector

Carbon Extraction

Farming, Manufacturing, Service, etc.

Carbon

Sequestration

Certified Carbon Accounting

Public Institutions

and Government

guidance

Carbon Board

certification

Permits & Credits

certificates


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