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Green revolution. Done by: Derrick Toh (31) Dylan Fones Jin Kheng (4) Lee Yiliang (13) Class: 3S2. The definition.

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Done by derrick toh 31 dylan fones jin kheng 4 lee yiliang 13 class 3s2

Green revolution

Done by: Derrick Toh (31)

Dylan Fones Jin Kheng (4)

Lee Yiliang (13)

Class: 3S2


The definition

The definition

  • Green revolution– Application of science and technology to increase crop productivity. Includes technological advanced techniques like genetic engineering etc.


Countries undergoing green revolution

Countries undergoing Green Revolution

  • Sri Lanka

  • Bangladesh

  • Indonesia

  • North Korea

  • Myanmar

  • Thailand

  • Vietnam

  • Philippines

  • Malaysia

  • Mexico

  • Chile

  • Brazil

  • Argentina

  • Algeria

  • Tunisia

  • Nepal

  • China

  • India

  • Pakistan


Changes in agriculture in asia since the onset of the green evolution

Changes in agriculture in Asia since the onset of the Green evolution

This table shows the change in agriculture in Asia by the end of the 20th century when 70% of wheat areas and 74% of rice areas were sown with HYVs.


Change in rate of growth of rice production in countries

Change in rate of growth of rice production in countries

  • Since the early 1990s, the rate of growth of food grain production has begun to slow down and in the 21st century the rate of population growth in a number of Asian countries is threatening to overtake the increase in food production.


The problem

The problem

  • Population growth globally is much faster than the increase in production of food. India is one case.

  • By the year 2000, the population in India will have reached 1 billion people and rise in food production must be at least by 40% to meet the demands of the people.

  • However, most of the India’s land has limited potential.


The rationale of green revolution

The rationale of Green Revolution

  • It includes techniques like genetic engineering to produce higher yielding varieties (HYVs) of crops and animals, mechanization, pesticides, herbicides, chemical fertilisers and irrigation water. This maximizes yield per hectare and output per farmer.

  • HYVs is the flagship of Green Revolution.

  • During 1967-8, India adopted Mexican Rice IR8 which had short stalk and a larger head than traditional ones, and yielded twice as much grain. However, large amounts of water and nitrogen are needed.

  • Up to 55% of India’s crops are HYVs. 85% of the Philippines’ crops are HYVs. However, only 13% of Thailand’s crops are HYVs. This is because Thai rice is of high quality and the techniques remain unchanged to preserve her status.


Adoption of hyvs

Adoption of HYVs

1 Fast adoption by farmers with plentiful land and/ or money. Land is used as security to buy seeds, irrigation pumps, fertilisers, pesticides, HYVs and so on, hence small farmers cannot benefit at first.

2 Adoption by smaller farms caused by: government- backed agricultural development projects, new seeds targeted for more environments and continued population pressure creating extra demand for more food.

3 Diffusion of new techniques to most farmers. Widespread adoption.

100

3

2

1

Adoption rate of HYVs (%)

Rich poor gap

Large farmers

Small farmers

0

Time


Challenges and problems

Challenges and problems

  • Higher cost of production

  • HYV’s of rice seeds and fertilizers etc cost money. Adoption of machinery as new technology will also raise cost of production.

  • Poorer farmers are unable to afford a higher cost of production while the richer ones can.


Challenges and problems1

Challenges and problems

  • Widening income gap

  • Rich farmers can afford HYV’s seeds, power pumps for irrigation etc. Thus their yields increase and in turn income. However, there are many poor farmers in Asia and cannot afford new technology. Their yields remain low or may even decrease.


Challenges and problems2

Challenges and problems

  • Over irrigation

  • Over irrigation by careless farmers results in water logging and salinity which ruin crops. This problem has destroyed more than 3 million hectares of farming land in North India.


Challenges and problems3

Challenges and problems

  • Pollution

  • A lot of fertilizers and pesticides are used to ensure high yields. These contaminate the soils and are washed away by heavy rain into groundwater and rivers, polluting the water.


Challenges and problems4

Challenges and problems

  • Prices affected by demand

  • The price of rice falls when there are high yields. When there is a surplus, farmers have to sell the crops at a reduced price.


Solutions

Solutions

  • Continual research on development of HYV’s for seeds on different rice growing environments.

  • Eg. Research in India on rice varieties that can give high yields in rain fed areas to benefit those who cannot afford irrigation facilities.


Solutions1

Solutions

  • Governments have set up banks and co-operatives for providing loans at low interest rates to farmers.

  • These loans will allow farmers to buy better inputs.

  • Officers are also sent out to train farmers to use modern technology correctly.


Solutions2

Solutions

  • Better provision and storage facilities

  • It is important to keep rice surplus in good condition for sale later. This will improve their income.


Case studies india

Case studies – India

  • In India, government investment on technology encouraged a huge growth in agriculture

    • Increase use of hybrid seeds and HYV

    • Reliance on machinery

    • Increase of fertiliser consumption

    • Use of animals for agricultural power decreased


Case studies india1

Case Studies – India


Case studies india2

Case Studies – India

  • Problems

  • At the beginning of the 21st century

    • Infertile land

      • Salt build up due to uncontrolled irrigation

    • Chemical fertilisers

      • Water pollution in rivers

    • Over use of groundwater

      • Insufficient water resource for future yields


Case studies philippines

Case Studies – Philippines

  • Rice HYV and cross bred hybrids with shorter stems were introduced.

  • Shorter stems

    • More energy goes to developing grain

    • Less likely to fall over

    • Easier to harvest by machinery


Case studies philippines1

Case studies – Philippines


Case studies philippines2

Case Studies – Philippines

  • Problem

  • Population pressure led to

    • Decline in farm size

    • Lower output per farm

    • Less income

    • Less growth and improvement for population


Case studies africa

Case Studies – Africa

  • The green revolution had little success in Africa

  • Problems in Africa

    • Lack of irrigation potential and infrastructure

    • Political instability, corruption

    • Hybrids of rice and wheat not staple crops

    • Climate conditions

      • Availability of water

      • Soil types

      • Terrain and Relief


References

References

  • http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/css/330/three/images/GreenRevolutionCurse OrBlessing.jpg

  • http://www.indiadaily.org/page/61

  • Quiz1st.com

  • http://www.jic.ac.uk/science/CropGen/images/crop-gen.jpg

  • http://waterfiltercanada.com/images/Water_purifiers_waterdroplet_0000.jpg

  • http://www.instablogsimages.com/images/2007/07/11/cr_india-population-1_18.jpg

  • http://www.baileybridge.net/geographybridge/indiabridge/images/india_population_graph.gif

  • http://www.straitstimes.com/STI/STIMEDIA/image/20080402/ST_IMAGES_LJPILE.jpg

  • supplydemand.gif (GIF Image, 268x217 pixels)

  • pollution.jpg (JPEG Image, 276x300 pixels)


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