PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Doctor : You should quit smoking.' - brant
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Reminder: there are many ways in which reasoning can go wrong; that is, there are many kinds of mistakes in argument. It is customary to reserve the term “fallacy” for arguments that, although incorrect, are psychologically persuasive. Some arguments are so obviously incorrect as to persuade and deceive no one. But fallacies are dangerous because most of us are, at one time or another, fooled by some of them. A fallacy is often defined as a type of argument that may seem to be correct, but that proves, on examination, not to be so.
Senator Biddle has argued that we should outlaw violent pornography. Obviously, the Senator favors complete governmental censorship of books, magazines and films. Frankly, I’m shocked that such a view should be expressed on the floor of the United States Senate. It runs counter to everything this great nation stands for. No senator should listen seriously to such an outrageous proposal.
Straw man fallacy – the logical pattern of the straw man arguments is this:
1. X’s view is false or unjustified [but where X’s view has been unfairly characterized or misrepresented].
Appeal to force – It is a psychological threat. The appeal to force fallacy usually accomplishes its purpose by psychologically impeding the reader or listener from acknowledging a missing premise that, if acknowledged, would be seen to be false or at least questionable. This example can be interpreted as concealing the following false premise:
If I succeed in threatening you, then I deserve a raise in salary.
Doctor coming year. After all, you know how friendly I am with your wife, and I’m sure you wouldn’t want her to find out what’s been going on between you and that sexpot client of yours. : You should quit smoking.
Patient: Look who’s talking! I’ll quit when you do, Dr. Smokestack!
Ad hominem (inconsistency) – The logical pattern of these arguments is this:
X fails to follow his or her own advice.
Therefore, X’s claim or argument should be rejected.
But this reasoning is clearly wrong. Arguments are not good or bad because of who offers them but because of their own intrinsic strengths or weaknesses. You cannot refute a person’s arguments simply by pointing out that he or she fails to practice what he or she preaches.