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Digestive System. AKA. G-I Tract Alimentary Canal. Overview. Consists of Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus About 30’ in length Accessory Organs Teeth, tongue, gall bladder, salivary glands, liver and pancreas

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Presentation Transcript
slide2
AKA
  • G-I Tract
  • Alimentary Canal
overview
Overview
  • Consists of
  • Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus
  • About 30’ in length
  • Accessory Organs
    • Teeth, tongue, gall bladder, salivary glands, liver and pancreas
    • Glands secrete saliva, bile and enzymes
process includes
Process Includes
  • Ingestion
  • Mechanical – chewing, churning
  • Propulsion – swallowing and peristalsis
  • Chemical – breakdown via enzymes
  • Absorption – transport of end products into blood
  • Defecation – elimination as feces
peritoneum and cavity
Peritoneum and cavity
  • Parietal peritoneum surrounds cavity, lines body wall
  • Visceral surrounds organ
  • Serous membrane allows organs to glide/expand
  • Retroperitoneal refers to organs in the dorsal region
  • Peritonitis = inflammation of peritoneum
  • Perforation = infection
mesentery
Mesentery
  • Double layer of peritoneum, holds organs in place
  • Omentums - protection
  • Lesser = fatty skin, superficial near the stomach
  • Greater = deeper, made of connective tissue, significant fat
  • Three layers of fascia – Skin, Fascia, mesentary
histology
Histology
  • Smooth muscle - peristalsis
  • Glands with ducts
  • Nerves, arteries and veins
mouth point of origin
MouthPoint of Origin
  • Oral cavity
  • Tongue
  • Soft and hard palate
  • Uvula
  • Oropharynx
  • Epiglottis
  • Larynx/pharynx
  • Esophagus
salivary glands
Salivary glands
  • Produce saliva, a mixture of water, ions, mucous, and enzymes
  • Dissolve food
  • Wets food to help bind it to become a bolus
  • Neutralizes acids, helps growth of beneficial bacteria
  • Intrinsic –in tongue, palate, lips and cheeks
  • Extrinsic = outside mouth
    • Parotids
    • Submandibular
    • Sublingual
pharynx
Pharynx
  • Oso
  • Laryngopharynx
  • Lined with epithelial cells for protection
esophagus
Esophagus
  • Muscular tube
  • Propels swallowed food to stomach
  • Passes through diaphragm (esophageal hiatus) into abdomen
  • Join the stomach at cardiac orifice
  • Cardiac sphincter prevents reflux or regurgitation of acid
stomach
Stomach
  • Food churned into chyme; a paste
  • Secretes pepsin – a protein digesting enzyme and HCl
  • Waters, electrolytes, some drugs absorbed through stomach
  • Anatomy
    • Cardiac orifice, fundus, lesser and greater curvature, pylorus
    • Rugae = numerous longitudinal folds of mucosa which flatten as stomach fills, allows expand
small intestine
Small Intestine
  • Longest part of alimentary canal
  • Most enzymes involved in small intestine come from pancreas
  • Three divisions
    • Duodenum – 5%
    • Jejunum – 40%
    • Ileum – almost 50%
duodenum
Duodenum
  • Receives digestive enzymes from pancreas
  • Bile from gall bladder and liver
  • Almost all nutrients are absorbed in small intestine
  • Large surface area, great length
gall bladder
Gall Bladder
  • Cystic duct
  • Bile duct – empties into small cystic duct
  • Secrete bile for duodenum digestion
  • Bile – Right and Left hepatic ducts to common cystic duct to Gall bladder for storage
  • From GB to bile duct to duodenum
pancreas
Pancreas
  • Exocrine gland – produces most enzymes for digestion in small intestine
  • Endocrine function = produce hormones that regulate levels of sugar in the blood
  • Main pancreatic duct
large intestine
Large Intestine
  • Most material has been digested by the time it reaches LI
  • 12-24 hours in large bowel
  • Little breakdown
  • Performs some absorption, especially water
  • Components
    • Ascending colon
    • Transverse colon
    • Descending colon
    • Sigmoid to rectum and anus
cecum and appendix
Cecum and appendix
  • Cecum is a small sac (blind pouch)
  • Valve prevents a back up of fecal matter to ileum
  • Appendix
    • Lymph tissue neutralizes bacteria
  • Diverticulosus – a small outward herniation of colon, especially sigmoid
  • Diverticulitis – infection with leaks into peritoneal cavity may lead to peritonitis
anal canal
Anal Canal
  • ANS balance between defecation or not
  • PNS = increase movement
  • SNS = decrease
  • Voluntary control via external sphincter muscles
liver
Liver
  • Largest gland in the body (1.4 kg – 3 lbs.)
  • Produces bile
  • Stored in GB
  • Emulsifies fats
  • Involved in metabolism
  • Diaphramatic and visceral surface
  • Right and left lobes
  • Porta hepatis = major vessels and nerves
  • Right and left hepatic ducts, common bile, common
study points
Study Points
  • Know the components of GI Tract
  • Know the peritoneum
  • Understand smooth muscle control
  • Know the various ducts and how they connect to specific organs
  • Understand the role of the stomach v. small intestine v. large intestine
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