Approaches for establishing links among ecological and chemical status
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Approaches for establishing links among ecological and chemical status. Outline: Introduction – WFD Annex V – how to quantify? What has the REBECCA project given? Examples of dose-response functions relating ecological and chemical elements How to use automated methods?.

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Approaches for establishing links among ecological and chemical status
Approaches for establishing links among ecological and chemical status

Outline:

  • Introduction – WFD Annex V – how to quantify?

  • What has the REBECCA project given?

  • Examples of dose-response functions relating ecological and chemical elements

  • How to use automated methods?


Introduction wfd annex v how to quantify
Introduction – WFD Annex V – how to quantify? chemical status

  • Monitoring of chemical elements has dominated classification systems before WFD

    • Eutrophication/organic pollution: P, N, BOD, COD, O2

    • Acidification: pH, ANC, Al

    • Toxic substances: metals, POPs

  • WFD require monitoring of biological elements

    • Phytoplankton, benthic algae, macrophytes, benthic fauna, fish

    • Links between biological and chemical elements needed for river basin management plans

  • Challenge to develop classification systems with biological indicators and class boundaries in line with Annex V normative definitions

  • Challenge to obtain type-specific relationships between chemical and biological indicators for different pressures


What has the rebecca project given
What has the REBECCA project given? chemical status

  • REBECCA: Relationships between ecological and chemical status of surface waters

  • EU FP 6 project: 2004-2007

  • Constructing relationships based on existing data

  • Lakes, rivers and coastal waters included

  • Eutrophication, acidification, toxic substances and hydromorphological pressures included

  • Publications:

    • Lakes results published in Aquatic Ecology (May 2008)

    • Rivers results will be published in Freshwater Biology (autumn 2008)

    • Coastal results published in different marine biology journals

    • Final conference in Oslo in May 2007

    • All reports and presentations available at www.rbm-toolbox.net


Rebecca dataset for lakes
REBECCA dataset for Lakes chemical status

Largest Pan-European dataset ever: >5000 lakes (Moe et al. 2008)


Examples of dose response functions relating ecological and chemical elements
Examples of dose-response functions relating ecological and chemical elements

  • Lakes:

    • Phytoplankton and nutrients

    • Macrophytes and nutrients

  • Rivers:

    • Benthic invertebrates and organic pollution

    • Benthic algae (diatoms) and nutrients

    • Benthic invertebrates and toxic pollution (heavy metals)

  • Coastal waters:

    • Phytoplankton and nutrients


Lakes phytoplankton and nutrients

spring/early summer samples chemical elements

Chrysophytes

(excl. Synura and Uroglena)

Cyanophytes

(excl. Chroococcales but incl. Microcysta and Woronichinia)

H/G

G/M

% of biovolume

Pennate diatoms

late summer samples

Chlorophyll-a µg L-1

Lakes: Phytoplankton and nutrients

  • Phytoplankton taxonomic indicator responses (Ptacnik et al. 2008, Lyche-Solheim et al. 2008)


Lakes macrophytes and nutrients
Lakes: Macrophytes and nutrients chemical elements

Macrophyte indicator (Isoetids) responses in low alkalinity lakes (Penning et al. 2008)


Rivers benthic invertebrates
Rivers: benthic invertebrates chemical elements

  • Benthic invertebrates integrated common metric index (ICMi) response to organic pollution (Buffagni & Owen, R. 2007)


Rivers benthic algae and nutrients
Rivers: Benthic algae and nutrients chemical elements

  • Diatom responses (Deflandre-Vlandas et al. submitted)


Rivers benthic invertebrates and toxic pollution
Rivers: benthic invertebrates and toxic pollution chemical elements

  • Benthic invertebrates and impact of heavy metals (Cu) in a Norwegian river exposed to mining waste (Moe et al. submitted)


Coastal waters phytoplankton and nutrients
Coastal waters: Phytoplankton and nutrients chemical elements

  • Bloom frequency and biomass increases with total nitrogen concentrations (Carstensen et al. 2006)


Coastal waters macroalgae and nutrients
Coastal waters: Macroalgae and nutrients chemical elements

  • Macroalgae response to nitrogen (Krause-Jensen et al.)


How to use automated methods
How to use automated methods? chemical elements

  • Essential to establish good correlations between the automated method parameter and the biological indicators used in the new WFD classification systems

  • Automated methods that are well correlated to the biological indicators may enhance spatial and temporal resolution of monitoring data, and allow detection of effect of measures

  • Two examples of automated methods:

    • Monitoring phytoplankton in coastal waters in Norway using satellite images and sensors on ferries

    • Mapping the riparian corridor as a proxy for ecological status of rivers


Sensors for marine phytoplankton
Sensors for marine phytoplankton chemical elements

  • Sensors on ferries detect algal blooms in the Oslofjord (green line) in contrast to conventional sampling programmes (red dots in figure) (Sørensen 2008)


Satellite images for marine phytoplankton
Satellite images for marine phytoplankton chemical elements

  • Algal biomass in Skagerak during spring bloom 2008 (Sørensen in prep., www.ferrybox.no)


Mapping of the riparian corridor as a proxy for ecological status of rivers
Mapping of the riparian corridor as a proxy for ecological status of rivers

  • From JRC IES Agri-Env action on Impact assessment and riparian mapping using time series of remote sensing (Ivits-Wasser et al.)

  • Permanent vegetation fraction derived from remote sensing correlates to the favourable status

  • Classification of the riparian-zone into favourable and unfavourable status in the Andalusia river network based on field observations

  • Classification accuracy: 89%

favourable status

unfavourable status



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