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Workshop Agenda. 10:00Discussion of Issues 11:00Toward an understanding of plagiarism 11:45Strategic Application 12:00Lunch 1:00Goal- and support-based design model 1:45Strategic application 2:15Break 2:30Assignment workshop 3:30Discussion and resources 4:00Adjourn.

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Workshop Agenda

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Workshop agenda

Workshop Agenda

10:00Discussion of Issues

11:00Toward an understanding of plagiarism

11:45Strategic Application

12:00Lunch

1:00Goal- and support-based design model

1:45Strategic application

2:15Break

2:30Assignment workshop

3:30Discussion and resources

4:00Adjourn


Your turn

Your Turn . . .

  • Please read all the vignettes.

  • Now focus on the vignette assigned to your group.

  • Discuss the vignette with your group, exploring its implications and trying to decide on a particular course of action, if any.

  • Be ready to share the results of your discussion with the larger group.


So what s plagiarism

So, What’s Plagiarism?


Consider

Consider . . .

Myth: The rubber soles of shoes or rubber tires on a car will protect you from being struck by lightning.

Fact: Rubber-soled shoes and rubber tires provide NO protection from lightning. However, the steel frame of a hard-topped vehicle provides increased protection if you are not touching metal. Although you may be injured if lightning strikes your car, you are much safer inside the vehicle than outside.


This appears verbatim at

This appears verbatim at:

  • Safeco.com

  • City of Fort Collins, CO

  • University of Victoria Elementary Education Program

  • National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration

  • Denton County TX

  • FEMA.GOV kids site

  • Times Record News (a Scripps newspaper), Wichita Falls

  • Lightning Protection Service & Installation, Inc., Berlin, NJ

  • National Weather Service Forecast Office, Jackson, MS


And also at

And also at:

  • Emergency Management Service, Portage, WI

  • WeatherBug.com (sponsored by Cool Savings, Inc.)

  • Goddard Flight Center (NASA)

  • Steuben County Gov., Bath, NY

  • Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council

  • Emergency Management Service, Tuscaloosa, AL

  • Factmonster.com

  • Kidzworld.com

  • Florida Family Insurance Co., Inc.


And also at1

And also at:

  • weatherandkids.com

  • bikeleague.org

  • Emergency Management, Springfield, MO

  • United Electric, Inc.

  • cybercom.net

  • vaudevilleproductions.com

  • easyweb.easynet.co.uk

  • Chiltern District County, Buckinghamshire, England

  • And dozens of others . . . .


Workshop agenda

Why?

  • Producers of text in civic contexts--for the public good--do not have profit motives or proprietary interests

  • The more the texts circulate, the better

  • Specific uses of texts make attribution unnecessary or undesirable


Consider1

Consider . . .

“Experience six brightly colored ‘island villages’ with the ambiance of the tropics. Each village has its own heated quiet pool plus a white-sand beach on the shores of a shimmering lake.” (from official Disney site)

Dozens of booking agents provide this text verbatim with no attribution.


Workshop agenda

Why?

  • Brokers don’t want to risk creating their own (mis)representations of properties

  • But they want to develop “trust” with clients: not “their language” but “ours”

  • No one cares that the text is not attributed; everyone “wins”


Plagiarism

Plagiarism?

  • The concept of plagiarism varies in different contexts and “textual cultures.”

  • The textual culture of public service operates with less proprietary interest than either business or academia.

  • The textual culture of business operates with selective proprietary interest, based on its goals.


Textual culture in academia research

Textual Culture in Academia: Research

  • Highly individualistic and person-centered

  • Based on credit cycles of individual production, invention, and publication

  • Privileges the ownership and attribution of ideas, concepts, and words to express them


Textual culture in academia teaching

Textual Culture in Academia: Teaching

  • Focused on individual growth

  • Preoccupied with evaluation of individual achievement

  • Recognizes and rewards “original” thinking and innovation by novices

  • Tends to perpetuate (and teach) assumptions about authorship from its own context


Values in our context teaching

Values in Our Context: Teaching

  • We care that students are developing (through their own effort).

  • We want to know we are evaluating their learning authentically.

  • Secondarily, we want students to learn to do things the way we do.

  • Secondarily, we want to emphasize ethical behavior and prepare students for social and occupational challenges.


Values in our context

Values in Our Context

  • We care that students are developing (through their own effort).

  • We want to know we are evaluating their learning authentically.

Fear of plagiarism? Or opportunity

to make this happen?


Workshop agenda

Orientation of our Work

Turning in

someone

else’s work

Pasting in un-

attributed text

as if own

Incorrect

citation

practices

Intentional and

knowing?

Due process

Yes

Intervention

Possible

sanctions/

remediation

No


Workshop agenda

Orientation of our Work

Turning in

someone

else’s work

Pasting in un-

attributed text

as if own

Incorrect

citation

practices

Intentional and

knowing?

Due process

Yes

Intervention

Possible

sanctions/

remediation

No


Workshop agenda

Orientation of our Work

Turning in

someone

else’s work

Pasting in un-

attributed text

as if own

Incorrect

citation

practices

Intentional and

knowing?

Due process

Yes

Intervention

Possible

sanctions/

remediation

No


Workshop agenda

Why Ex Post Facto?

Learning Goals

Maintenance of

Appropriate

Teacher Role

Due Process/

Sanctions

Creative Assign-

ment Design

Learning and

Authentic

Assessment

Yes

Attention to

Learning/

Process

(Unlikely)

Plagiarism

No


Why give assignments

Why Give Assignments?

  • “Gauge what students have learned.”

  • “Assess their ability to express themselves in writing.”

  • “Test their comprehension of course material.”

  • “Look for the extent to which they can synthesize disparate views on a topic.”

  • “See what they got from the experiment.”


Why give assignments1

Why Give Assignments?

  • “Provide an opportunity to practice skills of close observation and analysis.”

  • “Help them learn how to describe different positions on an issue in the discipline and evaluate those positions.”

  • “Acquire the conventions of writing in my discipline.”

  • “Get them to think critically.”


Problem we tend to use writing as a test

Problem: We Tend to Use Writing as a Test

  • Learning-oriented

  • Particularized

  • Multiple texts

  • Goal-driven

  • More integrated

  • Assessment-oriented

  • Generalized

  • Single texts

  • Format-driven

  • Less integrated


Dominant orientation in higher ed

Dominant Orientation in Higher Ed

  • Assessment-oriented

  • Generalized

  • Single texts

  • Format-driven

  • Less integrated

  • Learning-oriented

  • Particularized

  • Multiple texts

  • Goal-driven

  • More integrated


Potential for submitting others work

Potential for Submitting Others’ Work

Learning-oriented

  • Assessment-oriented

  • easy

  • more reason to do so

  • less learning if done

  • difficult

  • less reason to do so

  • more learning if done


Paper as test model

Paper-as-Test Model

learning

testing

ACTIVITIES

Paper

Paper


Example history

Example: History

A term paper of five to eight pages in length will be required and due at the end of week 14. This may be attached and sent to the instructor by e-mail. The paper must be in APA format (refer back to link at top of syllabus for the APA format guide). The term paper may be on any topic covered by the time frame of the textbook; that is of interest to the student. Please advise your instructor of your intended topic; so that, you do not pick something to difficult to research in a freshman level history class.

http://www.bmcc.edu/nish/courses/HS101/HS101syllabus.htm#points


Paper as test plus accountability

Paper-as-Test (Plus Accountability)

learning

testing

ACTIVITIES

Paper plus

“evidence”

Paper plus

“evidence”


Example sociology

Example: Sociology

You will write 3 essays, each about 5-10 pages long (not counting the Reference page). You must choose your 3 topics from the list provided below. Each essay must include at least 5 academic sources which cannot be dated before 1992. For each essay, you will turn in a rough draft and a final essay. Only the final essay will be graded and by the instructor only. Each essay will count 30% of your final grade. PLEASE TURN IN A COPY OF THE ARTICLES AND/OR BOOKS THAT YOU USED TO WRITE YOUR PAPER WITH YOUR FINAL DRAFT. I will return these back to you when I return your paper.

http://www.as.wvu.edu/soc_a/sociology/faculty/latimer/389syllabus.htm


Semi integrated model

Semi-Integrated Model

learning

testing

ACTIVITIES

Paper

Paper


Example architecture

Example: Architecture

The rough drafts will not be graded, but you are required to turn it in anyway. . . . Don't short-change the rough draft. It's your chance to show me what you are going to turn in on the final copy so that I can tell you what could be better about it. If you don't get the rough draft to me by the due date, I don't guarantee that I'll be able to get comments back to you before the final copy due date (but I'll still try).

http://www.ksl.stanford.edu/people/kpfleger/cs329_material/fall97/papers.html


Example chemistry

Example: Chemistry

Peer Review (pick up drafts Friday Apr 16), peer review IN CLASS Monday Apr 19) You will be given rough drafts of your classmates papers on Friday. By class the following Monday, you should have thoroughly read the drafts and provided constructive criticism both on the draft and in a short paragraph summary for the author. Constructive criticism should include positive comments on aspects of the paper that are strong and comments that you think the author should work on. You should comment on the writing and the content. You will then discuss the drafts in small groups during Monday’s class. Rough drafts will be handed in with the final paper and peer review scores will be determined based on effort made in reviewing the drafts and participation during the in-class exercise.

http://www.sonoma.edu/users/w/whilesli/term_paper_assignment_446.pdf


Fully integrated model

Fully Integrated Model

learning

testing

ACTIVITIES

WRITING

Paper

WRITING

ACTIVITIES

Paper

WRITING


Your turn1

Your Turn . . . .

  • Please read the Art History assignment.

  • In a pair or small group, critique this assign-ment generally. What works? What needs improvement?

  • Now critique it in terms of its potential to encourage or leave open the possibility of plagiarism. How can you change the curricular model to shut down this possibility?


Lunch break

Lunch Break

12:00-1:00


The instructional design model

The Instructional Design Model

Design

Assignments

Develop Goals for Students Learning

Informal

Formal

Evaluate Learning

Create Supporting Activities for Student Learning


Operative questions

Operative Questions

What new knowledge, skills, and processes do you want students to be able to know or use?

Learning

Goals

Assignment

Design

What aspects of your assignment help to accomplish those goals?

Supporting

Strategies

What activities support the development of the assignment?

How do you judge whether the learning goals are reflected in students’ products?

Assessment


Plagiarism proofing goals

Plagiarism-Proofing: Goals

  • What learning goal(s) do you want students to acquire?

  • Describe each goal: is it informational (some pieces of knowledge)? Experiential (something experienced, or some skill practiced)? Affective (some new awareness or metaconsciousness)?

  • How does each goal help you to achieve the goals of your entire course?


Plagiarism proofing start with goals

Plagiarism-Proofing: Start With Goals

  • Goal: Learn about an artist in the context of a work you’ve found in a museum.

  • Goal: Practice taking someone else’s biography of an artist and putting it into your own words.

  • Goal: Learn how to tell others, orally, something about an artist in a way that will interest and motivate them.

  • Goal: Be able to describe culture from an anthropological perspective and reach conclusions about behavior and cultural practice from careful observation.


Choose a mode focus on design

Choose a Mode/Focus on Design

  • Before you consider high-stakes, assessment-oriented assignments, consider low(er)-stakes assignments designed to encourage learning

  • Such assignments are driven by specific intellectual goals in your course

  • They tend to be linked well to your course material

  • They are easier to evaluate

  • They are very difficult to plagiarize


Example 20th c science tech

Example: 20th C. Science & Tech.

You are writing a letter to the high school teacher of your son or daughter. You know that the period covered in your child's course includes what is commonly referred to as the Middle Ages and you want to be sure that your son or daughter is not taught the "flat earth error" that seems to be implied in the textbook. In your letter, describe the "error" as presented in Russell's Inventing the Flat Earth, and explain why it is important that a more accurate story be presented to the class.

(http://www1.umn.edu/scitech/microtheme1.htm)


Example language linguistics

Example: Language & Linguistics

(First informal assignment) What do you think about trying to keep the Lakota language alive and flourishing? Write a page or two explaining your position.

(Second assignment, after first is discussed/handed in)

What do you think about trying to keep the dialect spoken on Tangier Island alive and flourishing? Write a page or two justifying your position relative to your first response.

(Third assignment, after second is discussed/handed in)

What do you think about trying to help keep Ebonics alive and flourishing? Write a page or two justifying your position relative to your other two responses.


Example studies in the family

Example: Studies in the Family

First informal assignment) What information, perspectives, and strategies should prospective parents know before they decide to have children? Write a page or so explaining your position.

(Second assignment, after first is discussed/handed in)

Should schools have a required curriculum on parenting that teaches the information, perspectives, and strategies you advocated in Stage 1 of this informal assignment? Justify your position.

(Third assignment, after second is discussed/handed in)

Parental “licensing” programs have been suggested to combat parental abuse and ignorance. The state would require parents to demonstrate knowledge (through tests or coursework) before getting a license to have children. New parents who have not obtained a license would be required to obtain one immediately or face removal of their child to protective custody. Argue for or against this method of providing the information you advocated in Stage 1 of the assignment.


Example physics

Example: Physics

The special theory of relativity rests on two experimentally verified principles, one of which (the constancy of the speed of light) is so surprising and hard to accept that after hearing it for the first time, most people either miss the point or think they must have misunderstood what was said. Explain this non-intuitive property of light in a way that would be clear and understandable to a non-scientist. Using non-technical language and analogies from everyday life, contrast the behavior of light with that of familiar objects traveling at speeds much less than c. Length: One page.

(http://www.indiana.edu/~cwp/assgn/biomods/p300.html


Example early modern china

Example: Early Modern China

Pick an event (the Sino-Japanese war, the Boxer rebellion, the fall of the Qing dynasty or some other event) which is discussed in this course and find accounts of the event in at least two newspapers published at the time of the event, one of which must be from a newspaper which was not published in the U.S. (You may not write on an event which happened after 1917.) Your paper should include a Xeroxed copy of the newspaper accounts, plus your analysis of the accounts in the light of the readings, lectures and class discussions.

http://writing.umn.edu/tww/WID/history/assignments/social_response.html


Example invertebrate zoology

Example: Invertebrate Zoology

[A]rrange the propositions below in a logical order, connect the individual statements with appropriate transitions, and arrive at a conclusion that is supported by your argument. Using all of the points supplied below, write a 2-page essay on the topic, “The relationship between coral and zooxanthellae.”

  • Coral reefs are formed by scleractinian corals that typically occur in shallow (<60m) water.

  • Hermatypic corals contain photosynthetic algae (zooxanthellae) in special membrane- bound cavities inside the cells of the gastrodermis.

  • Reef corals are limited to clear water because suspended material interferes with the transmission of light.

  • Over two-thirds of the metabolic requirements of corals are provided by zooxanthellae. [ETC.]

  • cwp.missouri.edu/resources/ samples


Your turn2

Your Turn . . . .

  • Consider the twelve low-stakes assignments.

  • In a small group, discuss which of the assignments might realize specific learning goals in your course. If you already use any of the samples, explain what you do. Or collectively come up with new ideas for low-stakes, creative, learning-based assignments for your courses.


Plagiarism proofing more design strategies

Plagiarism-Proofing: More Design Strategies

  • If a specific, generalized form or genre is not crucial, can you achieve the goal(s) through highly particularized and unique assignments? Cases? Hybrid or mixed genres?

  • What “input” from your course can you incorporate into your assignment that comes only from your course?

  • How can you break larger projects up into smaller assignments?


Design opportunity

Design Opportunity

  • Create unique kinds of assignments

    • creative angles and topics

    • hybrid genres

    • multi-modal assignments

    • episodic or multi-staged tasks

    • cases and scenarios


Mixed medium fsn

Mixed Medium: FSN

Goal: Analyze and present known information about nutrition within a specific culture while respecting and valuing cultural traditions in dietary practices.

Sketch of assignment: Students investigate the dietary practices of a specific cultural or ethnic group (Cuban American, Japanese, Hmong, Pakistani, Southeastern U.S., etc.). They write up a nutritional analysis (and give a presentation) in a way that balances an understanding of and respect for the culture or ethnic group.


Opting for speaking chemistry

Opting for Speaking: Chemistry

Goal: Apply biochemical knowledge to specific situations and make critical judgments about the accuracy of information.

Sketch of assignment. Students must look at Web sites that have a possible biochemical “bias.” Applying their knowledge from the course, they then do a brief presentation accompanied by Internet projection describing any bias they find, or explaining why there is no discernible bias.


Particularizing architecture

Particularizing: Architecture

Goal:Critically evaluate existing designs and eloquently express the results in writing for an informed public.

Sketch of assignment: Professional critique of a built project familiar to the student. The critique is intended for the "informed public" (features in the New York Times or Columbus Monthly, i.e., insightful and professionally valid, yet also entertaining and eloquent, reflecting a sophisticated knowledge of the subject without being burdened with professional jargon).

http://wac.colostate.edu/intro/com10f2.cfm


Mixed genre studies in british empire

Mixed Genre: Studies in British Empire

Student Essay from the perspective of a foot soldier:

My dearest Jane,

After I left you to join the army, many interesting things have occurred. My light foot brigade has been transferred to South Africa to fight the Boers of Transvaal [1]. They are determined to hold their lands from us. We need the resources of South Africa, like the gold and diamonds. The Dutchmen have no honor, as they strike civilian trains, and mutilate prisoners. . . .

“academic” footnote explaining info.


Mini case american literature

Mini-Case: American Literature

Imagine you’re Hester, looking back over the events in the novel. Choose one image (besides the scarlet letter) that’s most important, meaningful, or relevant to you. Write 2-3 pages in your (Hester’s) journal explaining why. Try to be authentic, i.e., avoid writing a journal entry that sounds like a literary analysis.


Design opportunity1

Design Opportunity

  • Create class-specific assignments

    • ask students to incorporate material from class discussions/lectures

    • provide additional readings/materials for writing

    • design assignments from course material


Example psychology

Example: Psychology

Decide whether the concept of natural selection applies to human attraction, dating, and mate selection. Refer to the article discussed in class (about physical attraction data) to explain and support your position.


Design opportunity2

Design Opportunity

  • Create specific audiences (or self-reflection) for assignments

    • Consider asking students to write the same text for different audiences and/or purposes

    • Ask for “parallel texts” in which students reflect on their papers and processes


Break

Break


Plagiarism proofing support

Plagiarism-Proofing: Support

  • How can you build certain assignment processes into your instruction and class time?

  • How can you relate discussions and activities to your assigned projects?

  • How can you use less formal assignments to drive your class sessions and enrich your course?

  • How can you sequence short assignments to build up to larger projects?


The instructional design model1

The Instructional Design Model

Develop Goals for Students Learning

Design Writing

Assignments

Informal

Formal

Evaluate Learning

Create Supporting Activities for Student Learning


Providing support

Providing Support

  • Analyzing sample data

  • Extracting information (text, art, etc.)

  • Practicing close observation

  • Providing support for assertions

  • Judging the validity of a source

  • Finding the right persona or style

  • Translating complex information for lay audiences

  • Choosing/narrowing a focus

  • Looking for the main point of a reading

  • Articulating an opinion


Example fsn

Example: FSN

  • What’s Needed: “Consult data on food nutrition; make conversions and calculations based on estimated quantities consumed daily.”

  • Supporting Activities: A sample daily menu from an ethnic group exempt from choice in the assignment provides raw data in class. Students work in groups, using nutritional tools, to figure nutritional values and then share them in brief reports, using an overhead, with the class.


Example biochemistry

Example: Biochemistry

  • What’s Needed: “Explore the Web site, paying special attention to its source and goals. Collect statements, data, or other information that potentially represents bias or, based on course material studied so far, misleads the viewer/reader in some way.”

  • Supporting Activities: A model site is given that the class unpacks as a group, contesting some of the statements at the site based on their own knowledge of the facts, and citing appropriate material as support.


Example architecture1

Example: Architecture

  • What’s Needed: “Observe built object; take critical notes: attention to elements studied and discussed in class.Formulate opinion and work toward critique.”

  • Supporting Activities: A 3-D interactive photo suite of a building and grounds is shown onscreen in a computer lab. Students turn the building around and examine it from different angles, taking notes on what they see. Full-class follow-up draws on their observations collectively, showing how to “look” for various elements.


Your turn3

Your Turn . . .

  • In a small group, share the assignment you brought to the workshop.

  • For each assignment, discuss one or more “plagiarism-proofing” methods from what we’ve considered and try to apply it to a redesign of your assignment.

  • What else would you need to change in addition to the assignment itself? Consider various supporting activities.


Support opportunity process

Support Opportunity: Process

low stakeshigh stakes

Early ideas

Freewrites

Topic explorations

Source analyses

Focus exercises

Drafts

Reflections

Peer responses

Revisions/edits

Final Paper


Support opportunity portfolios

Support Opportunity: Portfolios

  • Student portfolios provide a collection of work that documents progress over time

  • Portfolios can contain both primary documents (the “artifacts” of assignments) and secondary documents (reflections and commentary).

  • Students take ownership of and responsibility for their portfolios.

  • Teachers can oversee portfolios’ development and provide input along the way.


What about large r classes

What About Large(r) Classes?

  • Design unique assignments.

  • Use series of short, less formal assignments and assess for evidence of learning and engagement.

  • Allow specifics of classroom to enter into the “genre” of the writing.

  • Combine writing with other media

  • Use writing in the class.


Summary

Summary

  • Our view of plagiarism is often shaped by our assumptions about what writing is for in our classes.

  • Starting with learning goals can help us to create assignments that engage students and make it difficult and unnecessary for them to plagiarize.

  • Supporting larger projects engages students and leads them through the process, averting plagiarism.

  • Adding creativity and imagination to our assignments not only engages students and helps them “own” their work; it also makes teaching more fun for us.


Issues and discussion

Issues and Discussion


Good luck

Good Luck!

[email protected]

www.home.earthlink.net/~theansons/Portcover.html


The wpa statement

The WPA Statement

http://www.wpacouncil.org


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