Third parties performance and discharge remedies contract drafting class 3
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Third Parties Performance and Discharge Remedies Contract Drafting Class 3. Contracts. Drafting Contracts. Don’t be afraid to start with a form Use simple (non-legal) language Be consistent throughout the contract Make sure all essential terms are included in the contract

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Third parties performance and discharge remedies contract drafting class 3

Third Parties

Performance and Discharge

Remedies

Contract Drafting

Class 3

Contracts


Drafting contracts

Drafting Contracts

  • Don’t be afraid to start with a form

  • Use simple (non-legal) language

  • Be consistent throughout the contract

  • Make sure all essential terms are included in the contract

  • Review for inconsistencies and ambiguities

  • Review for contradictions


Drafting contracts1

Drafting Contracts

  • The contract should be clear to the contracting parties.

  • It should be complete.

  • The terms and methods of enforcement should be clear.


Parts of the contract

Parts of the Contract

  • Preamble (parties, date)

  • Recitals (background; not enforceable)

  • Words of agreement (consideration)

  • Definition of important terms

  • Action Section (subject matter, consideration, term of the agreement)

  • Substantive business (warranties, conditions, etc.)

  • Endgame provisions

  • General provisions (boilerplate)

  • Signature lines


Preamble

Preamble

  • The first paragraph – its purpose is to identify the contract. It sets out the name of the agreement, the parties and date the contract is signed:

    License Agreement, dated April 10, 2009, between May Licensing, LLC, and Gray Manufacturing, Inc.


Recitals

Recitals

  • Explain the background. They are not contract terms and are not enforceable.

  • The Bank has a greed to lend funds to the Borrower in accordance with the Credit Agreement they are signing today.

  • The Borrower is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Parent

  • The Bank will lend to the Borrower only if the Parent guarantees the Borrower’s debt. . . .


Words of agreement

Words of Agreement

  • State – for the record – that the parties agree to the terms of the contract:

    Accordingly, the parties agree:

    (Traditionally, it might say NOW, THEREFORE,

    in consideration of $10 paid in hand and other good and valuable consideration, receipt of which is here by acknowledged, the parties hereto hereby agree as follows . . . )


Definitions

Definitions

  • Usually follow words of agreement. Definitions in the contract are a good way of referring to complex concepts and ensure that the concepts have the same meaning throughout the agreement.

    “Litigation expense” means any expense incurred in connection with asserting, investigating, or defending any claim . . . .


Action sections subject matter

Action Sections: Subject Matter

  • In this section, the parties make their promises or covenants.

    At the Closing, Seller shall sell the house to Buyer, and Buyer shall buy the house from Seller.


Action sections consideration

Action Sections: Consideration

  • The next provision usually sets out the consideration – purchase price, salary, etc.

    With respect to each calendar month, the Licensor shall pay the Licensee royalties equal to 2 percent times Net Sales for that calendar month, payment to be made no later than the third Business day of the following calendar month.


Action sections term

Action Sections:Term

  • This provision sets out how long the contract will continue.

    Term: The term of this Lease is three years. It begins on the date that the parties sign and deliver this Agreement and ends at 5:00 p.m. on the date immediately preceding the third anniversary of the date that the parties sign and deliver this Agreement.


Substantive business provisions

Substantive Business Provisions

  • This part would include

    • Representations and warranties

    • Conditions (walk away rights)


Endgame provisions

Endgame Provisions

  • These relate what happens when the contract ends . . . Release of collateral . . What happens on default …

    Late submission of manuscript: If the Author does not submit his manuscript before November 1, 2009, the publisher may refuse to publish the Book.


General provisions

General Provisions

  • These tell the parties how to govern their relationship and administer the contract. This may include:

    • Notice

    • Choice of law

    • Choice of forum

    • Anti assignment clause

    • Modification

    • Severability


Signature lines

Signature Lines

To evidence the parties agreement to this Contract, they have signed and delivered it on

the date set forth in the Preamble.

May Corporation

By____________________

Meg Pearson, President

Craven Company

By___________________

Frank Foster, President


Third party rights

Third Party Rights

  • A third party (someone not a party to the underlying contract) may have a legal interest in a contract and be able to enforce the contract, if there is:

    • A “beneficiary” interest

    • An assignment

    • A delegation


Beneficiary interests

Beneficiary Interests

  • A third party beneficiary is someone who was not a party to the contract but stands to benefit from it.

    • Two types:

      • Intended beneficiaries(can enforce the contract)

      • Incidental beneficiaries(cannot enforce the contract)


Contracts

DIA v. Rose Jr.

Contract Action

(Or Custody Battle?)


Contracts

Meeting of the Minds

Contract formed

Promisor

Rufus Rose

Promisee

NBC

2. Did NBC intend

to benefit DIA?

1. Did Rose intend

to benefit DIA ?

Contract Should

Benefit

3. Did NBC (a)

have a duty

to DIA or (b)

intend to make

a gift to DIA?

Third Party Beneficiary

DIA Puppet Museum


Assignment and delegation

Assignment and Delegation

  • A contracting party may transfer his or her rights under a contract – this is an assignment.

  • A contracting party may transfer his or her duties under a contract – this is a delegation.


Assignment

Assignment

  • A contract must first exist.

    • There will be an obligor and an obligee.

  • One of the parties (the obligee) transfers his rights under a contract to a third person.

    • The person transferring – or assigning – his rights is the assignor.

    • The person receiving the assignment is the assignee.

  • The obligor now owes the money to the assignee.


Contracts

Seller

Assignor

Buyer

Obligor

Contract for Goods

Seller agrees to sell

Buyer agrees to pay

Seller delivers goods

Buyer owes $$$ to Seller

Assignee

Buyer pays $$$ to Assignee


Delegation

Delegation

  • A contract must first exist.

    • There will be an obligor and an obligee.

  • One of the parties (the obligor) transfers his duties under a contract to a third person.

    • The person transferring – or delegating – his duties is the delegator.

    • The person receiving the delegation is the delegatee.

  • The delegatee now owes the money to the obligee.

  • The delegator remains ultimately responsible for the performance under the contract.


Contracts

Seller

Obligor

Delegator

Buyer

Obligee

Contract for Goods

Seller agrees to sell

Buyer agrees to pay

Seller owes goods

Buyer pays $$$ to Seller

Delegatee

Delegatee owes Buyer the goods


Novation

Novation

  • A novation is a three-way agreement in which one party transfers all her rights and duties to a third party.

  • Both original parties agree to the novation.

  • Essentially the third party substitutes in for one of the original parties to the contract.

  • The obligee agrees to look only to the third party for performance.


When does a contract end

When does a contract end?

  • A contract is finished (executed) when performance is complete.

  • A contract also may come to end upon “discharge” of a non-performing party.


Discharge of duties

Discharge of Duties

  • Contractual duties may be discharged by:

    • Performance of all contractual duties

      OR

    • A condition excusing the duty

    • Agreement

    • Impossibility of performance

    • Commercial Impracticability


Conditions

Conditions

  • A condition is an event that must occur before a a duty to perform arises or which discharges a duty that has already arisen.

  • How are they created?

    • By words or conduct; by law

    • No special language is necessary to create a condition.


Performance

Performance

  • The contract ends when it is fully executed – that is when both parties fully perform their obligations under the contract.

    • Strict performance

    • Substantial performance


Personal satisfaction

Personal Satisfaction

  • In some contracts the performance must be done to the personal subjective satisfaction of the promisee.

  • Dissatisfaction results in termination of the contract.

    • In Washington the dissatisfaction must be based on reasonable grounds. Omni Group, Inc. v. Seattle-First Nat’l Bank, 32 Wn. App.22 (1982).


Good faith

Good Faith

  • Every contract imposes upon each party a duty of good faith and fair dealing in its performance and its enforcement.

    Restatement (Second) of Contracts § 205


Breach

Breach

  • Any failure or refusal to perform a contractual duty constitutes a breach.

  • When one party breaches a contract, the other party is discharged.

  • Courts only discharge (or cancel) a contract if a party has committed a materialbreach of the contract.


Anticipatory repudiation

Anticipatory Repudiation

  • Occurs when one of the parties to a bilateral contract either expressly or impliedly repudiates the contract prior to the time of performance.

    • Must be a positive statement or action indicating distinctly and unequivocally that the repudiating party will not substantially perform.


Discharge by agreement

Discharge By Agreement

  • Parties can end the contract by agreement through

    • Rescission

    • Novation

    • Accord and satisfaction


Impossibility of performance

Impossibility of Performance

  • If a party is unable to perform a contract because performance becomes “impossible,” then the performance is excused.


Commercial impracticality

Commercial Impracticality

  • If circumstances change (that neither party anticipated), leaving one party at a significant commercial disadvantage, that party may be excused from the contract under the theory of commercial impracticality.

    • If the change could have been foreseen, the court will generally not afford relief.


Remedies

Remedies

  • If one party fails to live up to the terms of the contract, the other party may sue. The remedyis how the court compensates the injured party.

    • Money damages based on

      • Expectation of contract performance

      • Actions taken in reliance on

    • Performance of the Contract

    • Rescission and Restitution

    • Reformation of the Contract


Compensatory damages

Compensatory Damages

  • These damages flow directly form the contract – damages that inevitably result from the breach.


Washington law

Washington law

  • The general measure of damages for breach of contract is that the injured party is entitled (1) to recovery of all damages that accrue naturally from the breach, and (2) to be put into as good a pecuniary position as he would have had if the contract had been performed.

    Diedrick v. School Dist. No. 81, 87 Wn.2d 598 (1976)


Consequential damages

Consequential Damages

  • These are damages that result from the unique circumstances of the injured party.

    • The injured party must prove that the breaching party had reasonable notice of the special circumstances and that a breach would cause the damages suffered.


Incidental damages

Incidental Damages

  • The minor costs associated with responding to a breach of performance.


Rescission restitution

Rescission & Restitution

  • Rescission results in a cancellation of the contract. (Generally where there was fraud, mistake, duress or undue influence (something affecting the genuiness of assent).

  • If a contract is rescinded, both parties must make restitution to each other.

    • Both parties are returned to the position they were in prior to the contract.


Reliance interest

Reliance Interest

  • Where the expectation interest of a contract cannot be established, a party injured by a breach may be entitled to damages that will restore the party to the position he would have been in if he had not entered into the contract.


Equitable remedies

Equitable Remedies

  • Specific performance

  • Injunction

  • Reformation of the contract


Mitigation

Mitigation

  • The law does not permit a party to recover damages for breach of contract if the damages could have been avoided without undue risk, burden or humiliation.

  • A party must exercise reasonable efforts to mitigate damages.


Liquidated damages

Liquidated Damages

  • Damages specified within the contract itself – a liquidated damages clause states, in advance, how much a party must pay if he or she breaches the contract.

  • Washington upholds these clauses unless it is a “penalty” and so long as the agreement is fair.


Attorney fees costs

Attorney Fees & Costs

  • A court will enforce a contract term requiring the losing party in an action on the contract to pay the other party’s attorney fees and litigation costs.


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