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Lecture 15 Deserts and Wind Action. Lecture Outline. I Deserts A) Characteristics B) Distribution C) Southwest United States i. The Great Basin ii. The Colorado Plateau II Wind Action A) Erosion B) Transportation C) Deposition III Conclusions. Lecture 3 ii.

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Lecture 15

Deserts and Wind Action


Lecture Outline

I Deserts

A) Characteristics

B) Distribution

C) Southwest United States

i. The Great Basin

ii. The Colorado Plateau

II Wind Action

A) Erosion

B) Transportation

C) Deposition

III Conclusions

Lecture 3

ii


Characteristics of Deserts

< 25 cm rain per year

sparse rugged vegetation

two climatic types

arid deserts

semiarid steppes



Climate ControlsSolar Radiation and Heat Transfer


Climate ControlsAtmospheric Heat Transfer

Three Cell Model

Hadley Cell

Ferrell Cell

Polar Cell


Climate ControlsOceanic Heat Transfer


Climate ControlsOceanic Heat Transfer – Thermohaline Circulation


Distribution of Deserts

Controlling Climatic Factors

Atmospheric Circulation

Rain Shadow

Cold Ocean Currents

Continentality


Distribution of DesertsAtmospheric Circulation


Distribution of DesertsAtmospheric Circulation


Distribution of DesertsAtmospheric Circulation - The Sahara



Distribution of DesertsRain Shadow - The American Southwest


Distribution of Deserts

Cold Ocean Currents


Distribution of DesertsCold Ocean Currents - The Namib

Sea Surface Temperature (oC) - 03/17/02

Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center

http://www.ocean.nrlssc.navy.mil/global_ncom


Distribution of DesertsCold Ocean Currents - The Namib


Distribution of DesertsContinentality - The Gobi


Deserts of the American Southwest

The Great Basin (Basin and Range)

The Colorado Plateau


Deserts of the American Southwest

Water Bodies – Arroyos


Deserts of the American SouthwestThe Great Basin

rugged mountain ranges

separated by flat valleys

fault-controlled topography




Desert Landforms of the American SouthwestGreat Basin Landforms - Alluvial Fan

alluvial fan - an outspread, gently sloping mass of alluvium deposited

by a stream, particularly in an arid or semi-arid region

where a stream issues from a narrow canyon onto a plain

or valley floor.


Desert Landforms of the American SouthwestGreat Basin Landforms – Bajada

bajada - a broad, gently inclined detrital surface extending from the base

of a mountain range out into an inland basin, formed by the

lateral build-up of a series of alluvial fans.


Desert Landforms of the American SouthwestGreat Basin Landforms - Playa

playa - a dry, barren area in the lowest part of an

undrained desert basin.

playa lake - a shallow, intermittent lake in an arid

region.


Desert Landforms of the American SouthwestGreat Basin Landforms - Pediment

pediment - a broad gently sloping erosion

surface or plain of low relief,

typically developed by running

water, in an arid or semiarid

region at the base of an abrupt

and receding mountain front.


Desert Landforms of the American SouthwestGreat Basin Landforms – Inselberg


Desert Landforms of the American SouthwestGreat Basin Landforms Evolution


Deserts of the American SouthwestThe Colorado Plateau

beds of flat-lying sedimentary rocks

>1500m above sea level due to uplift

marked by monoclines


Deserts of the American SouthwestColorado Plateau Landforms

plateau- a relatively elevated area of comparatively flat land bounded on

at least one side by cliffs

mesa - a broad flat-topped hill

butte - a narrow hill of resistant rock with a flat top and very steep sides


Desert Landforms of the American SouthwestThe Colorado Plateau – Monocline

monocline - a local steepening in an otherwise uniform gentle dip


Wind Action

Erosion

Transport

Deposition


Wind ActionErosion


Wind ActionErosion - Blowout


Wind ActionErosion - Deflation


Wind ActionErosion - Ventifacts


Wind ActionTransportation


Wind ActionTransportation - Dust Storms


Wind ActionDeposition – Dunes


Wind ActionDeposition – Dune Migration


Wind ActionDeposition – Dune Morphology


Wind ActionDeposition – Controlling Factors on Dune Morphology


Wind ActionDeposition - Barchan Dunes


Wind ActionDeposition – Transverse Dunes


Wind ActionDeposition – Barchanoid Ridge Dunes


Wind ActionDeposition – Star Dunes


Wind ActionDeposition – Parabolic Dunes


Wind ActionDeposition – Longitudinal Dunes


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