Axial skeleton
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Axial Skeleton. Axial Components. The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones forming the trunk and skull. Vertebral Column: is composed of 26 bones. From superior to inferior it consists of 7 cervical (neck), 12 thoracic 5 lumbar vertebrae 5 fused sacral bones 4 coccygeal

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Axial components
Axial Components

  • The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones forming the trunk and skull.

  • Vertebral Column: is composed of 26 bones.

  • From superior to inferior it consists of

    • 7 cervical (neck),

    • 12 thoracic

    • 5 lumbar vertebrae

    • 5 fused sacral bones

    • 4 coccygeal

  • Ribs and Sternum: The axial skeleton also contains 12 pairs Ribs

  • Skull: The skull consists of 22 bones fused together to form a rigid structure

  • Other Parts: Other bones considered part of the axial skeleton are the middle ear bones



Appendicular composition
Appendicular Composition

  • The appendicular skeleton forms the major internal support-the upper and lower extremities.

  • Pectoral Girdle and Upper Extremities

    • Form by the arms that are attached to and suspended from the axial skeleton via the shoulder (pectoral) girdle.

  • Upper limb from distal to proximal

  • Pelvic Girdle and Lower Extremities:

    • The lower extremities, or legs, are attached to the axial skeleton via the pelvic or hip girdle.

  • Lower Limb from Distal to Proximal


Characteristics of a bone
Characteristics of a Bone

  • Bones are form by connective tissue made by osteocytes cells

  • Bones are encased by a periosteum, a connective tissue sheath.

  • All bones have a central marrow cavity.


Bone cells
Bone Cells

  • Osteocytes

  • Osteoblasts

  • Osteoclasts


Bone type
Bone Type

  • There are two types of bone in the skeleton:

    • Compact bone

    • Spongy (cancellous) bone.

  • Bone Matrix


Types of bone
Types of Bone

  • Long bones

  • Short bones

  • Flat bones

  • Irregular bones

  • Sesamoid


Joints
Joints

  • The bones of the skeleton articulate with each other to perform structure or function.

  • Joints are

    • Immobile Joints

    • Mobile Joints


Types of joints
Types of Joints

  • Ball and socket

  • Hinge

  • Rotating or pivot

  • Plane or gliding

  • Condylar


Fibrous joints
Fibrous Joints

  • Also known as Synarthroses

    • Composed of bones united by fibrous tissue and are nonsynovial.

      Types of FJ

    • Suture

    • Syndesmosis

    • Gomphosis


Cartilaginous joints
Cartilaginous Joints

  • Also know as Amphiarthoses

    • Composed of 2 slightly moveable joints connected by fibrocartilage

      Types of CJ

    • Synchondrosis

    • Symphysis


Synovial joints
Synovial Joints

  • Also known as Diarthoses

    • Provide free movement between joint.

      Characteristics of Joint

    • Jnt cavity

    • Articular cartilage

    • Synovial membrane

    • Synovial fluid

    • Fibrous capsule


Cont synovial joints
(Cont.) Synovial Joints

  • Also known as Diarthoses

    • Provide free movement between joint.

      Types of SJ

    • Uniaxial

    • Biaxial

    • Multi-axial


Specific joints
Specific Joints

Shoulder:

  • Sternoclavicular Joint

  • Acromioclavicular Joint

  • Glenohumeral Joint

  • Scapulothoracic Joint


Works cited
Works Cited

  • Morrison Media LLC. “NPTAE Secrets.” 2008. 1-171. Print.

  • Miles, Scott. Scorebuilders.“PTA Exam.” 2010.


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