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Axial Skeleton. Axial Components. The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones forming the trunk and skull. Vertebral Column: is composed of 26 bones. From superior to inferior it consists of 7 cervical (neck), 12 thoracic 5 lumbar vertebrae 5 fused sacral bones 4 coccygeal

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axial components
Axial Components
  • The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones forming the trunk and skull.
  • Vertebral Column: is composed of 26 bones.
  • From superior to inferior it consists of
    • 7 cervical (neck),
    • 12 thoracic
    • 5 lumbar vertebrae
    • 5 fused sacral bones
    • 4 coccygeal
  • Ribs and Sternum: The axial skeleton also contains 12 pairs Ribs
  • Skull: The skull consists of 22 bones fused together to form a rigid structure
  • Other Parts: Other bones considered part of the axial skeleton are the middle ear bones
appendicular composition
Appendicular Composition
  • The appendicular skeleton forms the major internal support-the upper and lower extremities.
  • Pectoral Girdle and Upper Extremities
    • Form by the arms that are attached to and suspended from the axial skeleton via the shoulder (pectoral) girdle.
  • Upper limb from distal to proximal
  • Pelvic Girdle and Lower Extremities:
    • The lower extremities, or legs, are attached to the axial skeleton via the pelvic or hip girdle.
  • Lower Limb from Distal to Proximal
characteristics of a bone
Characteristics of a Bone
  • Bones are form by connective tissue made by osteocytes cells
  • Bones are encased by a periosteum, a connective tissue sheath.
  • All bones have a central marrow cavity.
bone cells
Bone Cells
  • Osteocytes
  • Osteoblasts
  • Osteoclasts
bone type
Bone Type
  • There are two types of bone in the skeleton:
    • Compact bone
    • Spongy (cancellous) bone.
  • Bone Matrix
types of bone
Types of Bone
  • Long bones
  • Short bones
  • Flat bones
  • Irregular bones
  • Sesamoid
joints
Joints
  • The bones of the skeleton articulate with each other to perform structure or function.
  • Joints are
    • Immobile Joints
    • Mobile Joints
types of joints
Types of Joints
  • Ball and socket
  • Hinge
  • Rotating or pivot
  • Plane or gliding
  • Condylar
fibrous joints
Fibrous Joints
  • Also known as Synarthroses
    • Composed of bones united by fibrous tissue and are nonsynovial.

Types of FJ

    • Suture
    • Syndesmosis
    • Gomphosis
cartilaginous joints
Cartilaginous Joints
  • Also know as Amphiarthoses
    • Composed of 2 slightly moveable joints connected by fibrocartilage

Types of CJ

    • Synchondrosis
    • Symphysis
synovial joints
Synovial Joints
  • Also known as Diarthoses
    • Provide free movement between joint.

Characteristics of Joint

    • Jnt cavity
    • Articular cartilage
    • Synovial membrane
    • Synovial fluid
    • Fibrous capsule
cont synovial joints
(Cont.) Synovial Joints
  • Also known as Diarthoses
    • Provide free movement between joint.

Types of SJ

    • Uniaxial
    • Biaxial
    • Multi-axial
specific joints
Specific Joints

Shoulder:

  • Sternoclavicular Joint
  • Acromioclavicular Joint
  • Glenohumeral Joint
  • Scapulothoracic Joint
works cited
Works Cited
  • Morrison Media LLC. “NPTAE Secrets.” 2008. 1-171. Print.
  • Miles, Scott. Scorebuilders.“PTA Exam.” 2010.
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