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CST Review. CST and FINAL EXAM REVIEW

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CST

Review


CST and FINAL EXAM REVIEW

Directions: Both your final exam and the CST (STAR) test are based on the California Standards. There are five major categories and they include: Investigation and Experimentation, Cell Biology, Genetics, Evolution and Ecology, and Physiology. Each of the categories includes a number of topics that you should know about. I am including each of the California Standards and questions that pertain to each. Answer them completely using your notes and textbook as resources.





2. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?

hypothesis– a possible explanation to a scientific question. (an “educated guess” based on prior knowledge and observations)

Theory– a well tested and supported hypothesis (Cell theory, theory of Natural Selection, Atomic theory)


  • Quantitative– involve numbers, counting, measuring objects.

  • Qualitative– involve characteristics that cannot be easily measured or counted such as color or texture


3. When conducting experiments, sometimes the results are not consistent and may yield results that are obviously wrong. What might be some typical sources of unavoidable errors?





5. The cell membrane can be referred to as a mosaic. What is the cell membrane composed of? (Draw a diagram and label)


5. The cell membrane can be referred to as a mosaic. What is the cell membrane composed of? (Draw a diagram and label)

Proteins act like passageways for larger molecules to pass through membrane



6. What is an enzyme and how does it speed up a chemical reaction?

Enzymes– specialized proteins that act as biological catalysts

(catalysts– a substance that speeds up rate of chemical reaction by lowering a reactions activation energy)


Enzymes are very reaction?specific

Name of enzyme derived from reaction it catalyzes

Enzymes are not used up in a chemical reaction.




8. What is the difference between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell? (Give an example of each type)


8. What is the difference between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell? (Give an example of each type)

Prokaryotic cell- no nucleus (bacteria)

Eucaryotic cell- has nucleus


9. What are the roles of the endoplasmic reticulum and the golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins?


9. What are the roles of the endoplasmic reticulum and the golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins?

Endoplasmic Reticulum- cell’s internal transport system (Rough ER- (has ribosomes attached) and Smooth ER (no ribosomes)

Golgi Apparatus- “post office” of the cell


10. What is the role of mitochondria in the cell? golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins?




11. What kind of cells might have a high number of mitochondria?

Cells that need a lot of energy. Heart cells, sperm cells, muscle cells, etc.



  • 12. What are the four types of organic molecules found in living things?

  • Four groups of organic compounds found in living things (carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins)

    • Macromolecules formed by process called polymerization (large compounds built be joining together smaller ones)

    • Monomers– smaller compounds

    • Polymers– large molecules





14. Proteins are all made from amino acids. What makes one protein different from another?

The number of amino acids and the sequence of amino acids (like letters in an alphabet spelling different words)



15. What effect does temperature have on proteins? protein different from another?

It changes the 3-dimensional structure of the protein (this will also change the way the protein functions)

Like when you cook a steak or eggs- it changes the consistency. It may also stop the action of an enzyme- snake venom


16. What organelle is responsible for photosynthesis and what is the name of the chemical (pigment) responsible for capturing the energy from sunlight?


16. What organelle is responsible for photosynthesis and what is the name of the chemical (pigment) responsible for capturing the energy from sunlight?

Chloroplasts- found in plants and some other organisms (none found in animals and fungi)

Green pigment- chlorophyll found in photosynthetic membranes


17. What is mitosis and what types of cells undergo mitosis? what is the name of the chemical (pigment) responsible for capturing the energy from sunlight?


17. What is mitosis and what types of cells undergo mitosis? what is the name of the chemical (pigment) responsible for capturing the energy from sunlight?

Division of cells forming two identical new daughter cells (body cells) 2n → 2n

Part of Cell Cycle

PMAT (stages) followed by cytokinesis



18. What is the difference between diploid cells and haploid cells?

Diploid (2n)- two sets of chromosomes (normal number in body cells)

Haploid (n)- half the number of chromosomes (found in sex cells-gametes)



19. What process produces diploid cells and which produces haploid cells?

Mitosis- makes diploid cells 2n → 2n

Meiosis- makes haploid sex cells (gametes) 2n → n + n



20. What is meiosis and what does it result in? haploid cells?

Process of producing sex cells (gametes)

Results in four haploid (n) cells (sperm or egg)



21. Explain why this is a good representation of fertilization: n + n =2n

Shows two haploid cells (gametes) coming together to produce diploid (2n) cell-zygote

n + n =2n



22. What is meant be segregation when sex cells (gametes) are produced?

Chromosomes segregate (separate) during meiosis.



23. What is independent assortment? are produced?

Each of the chromosome pairs separate independently of the others (like flipping a coin each time to determine which one to use)



24. What is a mutation? are produced?

Any change in an organisms DNA. Happens naturally and randomly





26. What are sex chromosomes and what combinations would result in a boy or a girl?

Girl = XX Boy = XY

23rd pair of chromosomes in humans



  • 27. What occurs during: result in a boy or a girl?

  • Replication- DNA making DNA

  • Transcription- DNA making RNA

  • Translation- RNA making Proteins





29. What is a codon and how is it involved in protein synthesis?

3-letter code word on mRNA that codes for a particular amino acid


30. During replication, the DNA sequence of GTTACGCAT would result in another strand have a sequence of?


30. During replication, the DNA sequence of GTTACGCAT would result in another strand have a sequence of?

GTTACGCAT

CAATGCGTA


31. During transcription, the DNA sequence of GTTACGCAT would result in a strand of RNA having a sequence of?


31. During transcription, the DNA sequence of GTTACGCAT would result in a strand of RNA having a sequence of?

GTTACGCAT

CAAUGCGUA





  • What about a DNA sequence of: sequence the following strands of mRNA would code for:

  • GGCATACCC-

  • CCGUAUGGG- Pro-Tyr-Pro

  • UUCCAGTTA-

  • AAGGUCAAU- Lys-Val-Asn

  • GCATTACGG-

  • CGUAAUGCC- Arg-Asn-Ala





34. Males are more likely to have a sex-linked trait than females. Why?

Males only have a single X chromosome and will have recessive disorder on X chromosome automatically (do not have another X with a possible normal gene to counteract)

XHXh & XHXh- normal XhXh –disorder

XHY –normal XhY –disorder



35. Why can a women be a carrier of a sex-linked genetic disorder but a male cannot?

Girls have 2 X chromosomes

XHXh- normal (carrier) carries the gene but does not express it



35. What is crossing over? (Draw a diagram and explain) disorder but a male cannot?

Legs of chromosomes cross over each other and exchange parts of themselves


36. Complete the following genetic cross and give the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the offspring: Tt x tt (draw punnett square and give ratios)


36. Complete the following genetic cross and give the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the offspring: Tt x tt (draw punnett square and give ratios)

Genotypic ratio- 1:1

Phenotypic ratio- 1:1

T t

t

t


37. Complete the following genetic cross and give the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the offspring: XXh x XhY (draw punnett square and give ratios)


37. Complete the following genetic cross and give the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the offspring: XXh x XhY (draw punnett square and give ratios)

Genotypic ratio- 1:1:1:1

Phenotypic ratio- 1:1:1:1

Female-normal

Female-disorder

Male-normal

Male-disorder

X Xh

Xh

Y


38. In fruit flies, the gene for red eyes (R) is dominant and the gene for sepia eyes (r) is recessive. What are the possible combinations of genes in the offspring of two red-eyed heterozygous flies (Rr)? (draw punnett square)


38. In fruit flies, the gene for red eyes (R) is dominant and the gene for sepia eyes (r) is recessive. What are the possible combinations of genes in the offspring of two red-eyed heterozygous flies (Rr)? (draw punnett square)

R r

Genotypic ratio- 1:2:1

Phenotypic ratio- 3:1

R

r


39. What is cloning? and the gene for sepia eyes (r) is recessive. What are the possible combinations of genes in the offspring of two red-eyed heterozygous flies (Rr)? (draw punnett square)


39. What is cloning? and the gene for sepia eyes (r) is recessive. What are the possible combinations of genes in the offspring of two red-eyed heterozygous flies (Rr)? (draw punnett square)

Cloning- a member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell


40. What does biodiversity mean? and the gene for sepia eyes (r) is recessive. What are the possible combinations of genes in the offspring of two red-eyed heterozygous flies (Rr)? (draw punnett square)


40. What does biodiversity mean? and the gene for sepia eyes (r) is recessive. What are the possible combinations of genes in the offspring of two red-eyed heterozygous flies (Rr)? (draw punnett square)

Biodiversity- the variation and frequency of organisms within a given area


41. How do alterations in a habit affect the biodiversity? and the gene for sepia eyes (r) is recessive. What are the possible combinations of genes in the offspring of two red-eyed heterozygous flies (Rr)? (draw punnett square)


41. How do alterations in a habitat affect the biodiversity? and the gene for sepia eyes (r) is recessive. What are the possible combinations of genes in the offspring of two red-eyed heterozygous flies (Rr)? (draw punnett square)

Normally decreases the diversity. Human intervention, urbanization, habitat fragmentation and destruction



42. What are biotic and abiotic factors that effect an environment?

Biotic- all the living things in an environment (plant, animal, bacteria, etc.)

Abiotic- non-living factors including temperature, precipitation (rainfall), soil type, etc.



43. What are are the main trophic levels in a food chain or web? (Draw and label a diagram)

Trophic level- individual level on food chain or food web. Always starts with producer (autotroph)





45. What are the four factors that affect a population size? web?

Birth rate

Immigration

Death rate

Emigration

INCREASES POPULATION SIZE

DECREASES POPULATION SIZE


46. What is ecological succession and what is the difference between primary and secondary succession?


46. What is ecological succession and what is the difference between primary and secondary succession?

Series of events an environment goes through to regrow after a disturbance

Primary- starts with bare rock

Secondary- starts with soil


47. What are biogeochemical cycles? between primary and secondary succession?


47. What are biogeochemical cycles? between primary and secondary succession?

cycling of nutrients (minerals and other chemicals) that sustain life. Three main cycles

Carbon cycle-

Nitrogen cycle-

Water cycle-

Phosphorus cycle-



48. What are the two main processes that contribute to the oxygen and carbon cycles?

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration


49. What is an energy pyramid and what percent of energy is available to each succeeding trophic level?


49. What is an energy pyramid and what percent of energy is available to each succeeding trophic level?

The movement of energy through an ecosystem.

Only 10% is available to each succeeding step


50. What is carrying capacity? available to each succeeding trophic level?


50. What is carrying capacity? available to each succeeding trophic level?

The maximum number of individuals an ecosystem can support



51. How does the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation effect the environment?

Burning fossil fuels = more CO2 (product of combustion)

Deforestation = more CO2 (trees not using CO2 for photosynthesis)


52. Why are fungi and bacteria so important and helpful in preventing the Earth from being covered with dead organisms?


52. Why are fungi and bacteria so important and helpful in preventing the Earth from being covered with dead organisms?

They are decomposers and return nutrients to the environment


53. What is natural selection and why does natural selection act on phenotypes instead of genotypes?


53. What is natural selection and why does natural selection act on phenotypes instead of genotypes?

Natural selection- process by which certain heritable traits—those that make it more likely for an organism to survive and successfully reproduce —become more common in a population over successive generations. It is a key mechanism of evolution.



  • 54. Define the following terms: act on phenotypes instead of genotypes?

  • Species- individual type of organism

  • Population- group of same species in area

  • Community- groups of different population in given area

  • Biome- geographical region containing several ecosystems that have same climate and dominant communities (climax communities)



55. What type of traits might give an individual a greater chance of surviving (fitness)?

Those that make an organism more successful at getting food, mating, camouflage, etc



56. What type of isolation might lead to the development of a new species?

Geographic isolation- mountain ranges, rivers, oceans, etc.

Temporal isolation- timing of mating season

Behavioral isolation- different mating rituals

All three increase the chances that isolated groups will grow increasingly different and eventually form a distinct new species





58. What is genetic drift and when might it occur? a new species?

New population forms from small group of founders that might have limited gene pool.

May form when small number of individuals populate new island


59. What is homeostasis? a new species?


59. What is homeostasis? a new species?

Maintaining constant and stable internal conditions despite changes in the outside environment.

Works like a thermostat controlling room temperature


60. How does a nerve impulse travel through the nervous system (describe an electrochemical impulse)


60. How does a nerve impulse travel through the nervous system (describe an electrochemical impulse)

Part electrical and part chemical transmission of signal.



61. What is a synapse and how does the impulse travel across the synapse?

Synapse- gap between two neurons. Signal is carried by chemicals (neurotransmitters) across the gap



62. What is a reflex arc? the synapse?

Reflex arc- when nerve impulse does not travel all the way to the brain first to respond to stimuli. Can react faster


63. When you experience the “fight or flight” response, your adrenal glands secrete the hormone adrenaline. What is the result of this?


63. When you experience the “fight or flight” response, your adrenal glands secrete the hormone adrenaline. What is the result of this?

You can react faster. Increased heart and breathing rate. Heightened senses


64. What is a hormone? your adrenal glands secrete the hormone adrenaline. What is the result of this?


64. What is a hormone? your adrenal glands secrete the hormone adrenaline. What is the result of this?

A chemical signal that is produced by endocrine glands. Include testosterone, adrenaline, growth hormone, etc.



65. What is your body’s first line of defense against pathogens?

sweat, skin, tears, mucus, stomach acid



66. How does the HIV virus reduce you ability to fight off infections?

The HIV virus attacks your body’s immune system. You are not able to fight off pathogens


HIV targets the immune system infections?

HIV- Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Retrovirus (contains RNA) that attacks and weakens the immune system


Leads to “ infections?opportunistic” infections

HIV is transmitted by exchange of blood or other body fluids


HIV reproduces in infections?T-cells (cells that trigger immune responses)

HIV leads to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)



67. How does your circulatory and respiratory systems work together to maintain homeostasis?

Respiratory system takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide that it takes from you circulatory system.



68. What endocrine gland and hormone it produces regulates metabolism?

Thyroid gland- The function of the thyroid gland is to take iodine, found in many foods, and convert it into thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Every cell in the body depends upon thyroid hormones for regulation of their metabolism



69. What important function do your kidneys perform to maintain homeostasis?

Filter you blood and maintain fluid levels in bloodstream (blood pressure) and levels of salts, ph level, nitrogen wastes, etc.

Sends excess fluids to bladder to rid from body



70. How does a vaccine provide you with immunity? maintain homeostasis?

Vaccines artificially produce acquired immunity

1. Vaccine- substance that contains antigen of a pathogen

2. Causes immune system to produce memory cells

3. You can make antibodies right away if infected



71. Where does chemical digestion of food begin? maintain homeostasis?

In your mouth



72. What type of pathogens do antibiotics work on or not work on?

Bacteria or fungi, but NOT on viruses



73. What are your body’s non-specific defenses against pathogens?

Inflammatory response- characterized by swelling, redness, pain, itching, and increased warmth at affected site

Reacts to every pathogen the same way



  • 74. What are your body’s specific defenses against pathogens?

  • Immune response is triggered when immune system detects a pathogen (2 types of immune response)

    • Cell-mediated immunity- when lymphocytes (not antibodies) themselves defend the body.

    • Humoral Immunity- also called antibody-mediated immunity

  • Antigens- protein markers on surfaces of cells and viruses that help immune system identify a foreign cell or virus



75. What is an antibody? pathogens?

Antibodies- proteins made by B-cells and destroy pathogens



76. What is an antigen? pathogens?

Antigens- protein markers on surfaces of cells and viruses that help immune system identify a foreign cell or virus



  • 77. What are the three types of neurons? (Diagram and label the correct pathway)

  • Sensory neurons- detect stimuli and transmit signals to brain and spinal cord

  • Interneurons- make up brain and spinal cord and receive and process information

  • Motor neurons-pass messages from nervous system to organs and muscles



78. What is a feedback loop and how is it similar to a thermostat in your house?

It operates by doing the opposite (negative) of what it senses. If senses it is to hot, it tries to cool down, to cold, tries to warm up.



79. How are the nervous system and endocrine system similar? Different?

Both regulate and control you body

Nervous system- fast acting and “hard wired”

Endocrine system- slower acting chemical signals carried in your bloodstream throughout the body. Control process that occur over long periods of time (hair growth, aging, sleep patterns, etc.)



80. Why is a virus not considered a living thing? Different?

It needs a host cell to reproduce (cannot reproduce by itself)


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