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Differential Educational Achievement 1.Class. Class differences in educational attainment have persisted since 1950’s Students from middle class backgrounds pass more exams, stay on more at school and are more likely to go to university WHY IS THIS?? .

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Differential educational achievement 1 class
Differential Educational Achievement 1.Class

Class differences in educational attainment have persisted since 1950’s

Students from middle class backgrounds pass more exams, stay on more at school and are more likely to go to university

WHY IS THIS??


Differential educational achievement 1 class1
Differential Educational Achievement 1.Class

Are the Middle Class more intelligent ?

There is general agreement that intelligence is due to:

The genes inherited from parents

The environment in which children grow up


Differential educational achievement 1 class2
Differential Educational Achievement 1.Class

IQ tests are popular but are widely criticised by sociologists

IQ results are unreliable – your score can vary over time

IQ tests are culturally biased I expressed in middle class vocabulary


Differential educational achievement 1 class3
Differential Educational Achievement 1.Class

IQ Tests

They favour the MC because of the language used

Motivation and previous experience can affect performance

Bowles & Gintis (Marxists) 1976 found no link between IQ and educational and economic success


Differential educational achievement 1 class4
Differential Educational Achievement 1.Class

Class Subcultures

JWB Douglas 1964

Key factor was parental interest

MC parents gave greater attention to children’s education than WC

MC parents expected more from their children and gave more rewards

The WC seen are “culturally deprived”


Differential educational achievement 1 class5
Differential Educational Achievement 1.Class

Criticisms

Blackstone & Mortimore 1994

WC parents do care as much as MC

But WC parents feel less confident about dealing with schools - Douglas sounds a bit too much like “Blame the victim”


Differential educational achievement 1 class6
Differential Educational Achievement 1.Class

Bernstein 1972 – Language Codes

Restricted Code of the working class not suited to academic study

Shorthand speech

Grammatically simple

Meanings don’t need to be made explicit

“Get out of that puddle”


Differential educational achievement 1 class7
Differential Educational Achievement 1.Class

Bernstein 1972 – Language Codes

Elaborated Code – middle class

More complex speech

Details and explanations are given

“Get out of that puddle because the water will get in your shoes and make your socks wet and uncomfortable”


Differential educational achievement 1 class8
Differential Educational Achievement 1.Class

Bernstein believed that MC kids could use both codes, switching when the need arose

The greater use of the restricted code amongst WC families

led to WC kids suffering a disadvantage at school

where the more formal elaborated code was more common.


Differential educational achievement 1 class9
Differential Educational Achievement 1.Class

Class Subcultures

Bourdieu (A Marxist Sociologist) – Cultural capital

Cultural Capital – the education system is biased towards the MC

It uses knowledge and skills of MC culture

MC kids therefore have an advantage over WC kids


Differential educational achievement 1 class10
Differential Educational Achievement 1.Class

Class Subcultures

Ball, Bowe & Gewirtz 1994

Cultural Capital gives MC parents more advantages

Their contacts and knowledge mean they play the system

They have more ‘stamina’ for researching schools and appeals etc

They can afford to move to areas where ‘good’ schools are or pay for travel etc


Differential educational achievement 1 class11
Differential Educational Achievement 1.Class

Class Subcultures

Smith & Noble 1994

·Schools in wealthy middle class areas areas are better equipped

Parents with money provide more educational aids – computers, books, private tutors etc

Now Try THIS TEST


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